Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1197–1207 | Cite as

The influence of stem guying on radial growth, stem form and internal resin features in radiata pine

  • John R. Moore
  • David J. Cown
  • John R. Lee
  • Russell B. McKinley
  • Rod K. Brownlie
  • Trevor G. Jones
  • Geoffrey M. Downes
Original Paper

Abstract

Key message

Stem guying to prevent wind-induced swaying of radiata pine trees resulted in significant changes in radial growth, but did not affect the frequency of compression wood or resin features.

Abstract

Mechanical stress resulting from wind forces acting on trees can cause a number of direct and indirect effects ranging from microscopic changes in cambial activity through to stem breakage and uprooting. To better understand these effects on radial stem growth and wood properties, an experiment was established in a 13-year-old radiata pine (Pinus radiata D Don) stand in which 20 trees were guyed to prevent them from swaying. Radial growth was monitored in these trees and 20 matched controls at monthly intervals for 5 years. The trees were then felled and radial growth, resin features and compression wood were assessed on cross-sectional discs taken at fixed locations up the stem. There was a significant reduction in radial growth at breast height (1.4 m above the ground) in the guyed trees, but an increase in growth immediately above the guying point. A total of 277 resin features were observed in the growth rings formed following guying. The overall frequency of such features was related to height within the stem and annual ring number. No effect of stem guying was found on the incidence of compression wood. Interestingly, the distribution of resin features also did not differ between guyed and un-guyed trees. There was no evidence of a link between stem restraint as a result of guying and the incidence of resin features, suggesting that other factors, such as soil moisture may be more influential.

Keywords

Biomechanics Wind sway Wood properties Stem form Resin 

Notes

Author contribution statement

JRM was the primary author and analysed most of the data. DJC and RBMcK collected data on resin features and contributed to the interpretation of results. JRL arranged the collection of discs, undertook preliminary analysis of the data and assisted with an early draft of the manuscript. RKB assisted with monitoring of the trial, collection and photographing of the discs. TGJ helped with developing the initial trial design and collected data on tree growth during the guying period. GMD and JRM conceived the initial concept of the trial, developed the work plan and obtained funding.

Acknowledgments

Funding for the initial establishment of this experiment was provided by the Wood Quality Initiative Ltd. Future Forests Research Ltd. provided funding for the ongoing data collection, felling of the trial and analysis of the data. Rayonier | Matariki Forests provided the site for this experiment. Scion colleagues Mark Miller and Kane Fleet installed the guying cables and with Jason Bennett assisted in the felling of the trial. Dr Charles Sabatia provides assistance with the analysis of the growth response data. Dr Damien Sellier, Dr Jonathan Harrington and two anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bannan MW, Bindra M (1970) The influence of wind on ring width and cell length in conifer stems. Can J Bot 48:255–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bascuñán A, Moore JR, Walker JCF (2006) Variations in the dynamic modulus of elasticity with proximity to the stand edge in radiata pine stands on the Canterbury Plains, New Zealand. NZ J For 53(1):4–8Google Scholar
  3. Bruchert F, Gardiner B (2006) The effect of wind exposure on the tree aerial architecture and biomechanics of sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis, Pinaceae). Am J Bot 93(10):1512–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burton JD, Smith DM (1972) Guying to prevent wind sway influences loblolly pine growth and wood properties. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station Research Paper SO-80, New Orleans, p 8Google Scholar
  5. Clifton NC (1969) Resin pockets in Canterbury radiata pine. NZ J For 14(1):38–49Google Scholar
  6. Cown DJ (1973a) Effects of severe thinning and pruning treatments on the intrinsic wood properties of young radiata pine. NZ J For Sci 3:379–389Google Scholar
  7. Cown DJ (1973b) Resin pockets: their occurrence and formation in New Zealand forests. NZ J For 18(2):233–251Google Scholar
  8. Cown DJ (1974) Comparison of the effects of two thinning regimes on some wood properties of radiata pine. NZ J For Sci 4:540–551Google Scholar
  9. Cown DJ, Donaldson LA, Downes GM (2011) A review of resin features in radiata pine. NZ J For Sci 41:41–60Google Scholar
  10. Daudet F-A, Ameglio T, Cochard H, Archilla O, Lacointe A (2005) Experimental analysis of the role of water and carbon in tree stem diameter variations. J Exp Bot 46(409):135–144Google Scholar
  11. de Shepper V, Steppe K, van Labeke M-C, Lemeur R (2010) Detailed analysis of double girdling effects on stem diameter variations and sap flow in young oak trees. Environ Exp Bot 68:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dean TJ, Long JN (1986) Validity of constant-stress and elastic-instability principles of stem formation in Pinus contorta and Trifolium pratense. Ann Bot 58:833–840Google Scholar
  13. Dean TJ, Roberts SD, Gilmore DW, Maguire DA, Long JN, O’Hara KL, Seymour RS (2002) An evaluation of the uniform stress hypothesis based on stem geometry in selected North American conifers. Trees 16:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Donaldson LA (1983) Longitudinal splitting of bark: a likely cause of “type 3” resin pockets in Pinus radiata. NZ J For Sci 13:125–129Google Scholar
  15. Eklund L, Sall H (2000) The influence of wind on spiral grain formation in conifer trees. Trees 14:324–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frey-Wyssling A (1938) The formation of resin pockets. Holz Roh und Werkstoff 9:329–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gjerdrum P, Bernabei M (2007) Three-dimensional model for size and location of resin pockets in stems of Norway spruce. Holz als Roh und Werkstoff 65(3):201–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hewitt AE (1998) New Zealand soil classification, 2nd edn. Landcare Research Science Series, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  19. Holbrook NM, Putz FE (1989) Influence of neighbors on tree form: effects of lateral shade and prevention of sway on the allometry of Liquidamber styrafaciflua (Sweet gum). Am J Bot 76(12):1740–1749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jacobs MR (1939) A study of the effects of sway on trees. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  21. Jacobs MR (1954) The effect of wind sway on the form and development of Pinus Radiata D. Don. Aust J Bot 2:35–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones TG, Downes GM, Watt MS, Kimberley MO, Culvenor DS, Ottenschlaeger M, Estcourt G, Xue J (2013) Effect of stem bending and soil moisture on the incidence of resin pockets in radiata pine. NZ J For Sci 43:10Google Scholar
  23. Kubler H (1991) Function of spiral grain in trees. Trees 5:125–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar S (2004) Genetic parameter estimates for wood stiffness, strength, internal checking, and resin bleeding for radiata pine. Can J For Res 34(12):2601–2610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Larson PR (1963) Stem form development of forest trees. For Sci Monogr 5:1–42Google Scholar
  26. Larson PR (1965) Stem form of young Larix as influenced by wind and pruning. For Sci 11:412–421Google Scholar
  27. Larson PR (1994) The vascular cambium: development and structure. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee J (2009) Assessment of the end grain of log ends and discs. Scion Wood Process Newslett 43:5–6Google Scholar
  29. Mattheck C (1991) Trees: the mechanical design. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mattheck C (2000) Comments on “Wind-induced stresses in cherry trees: evidence against the hypothesis of constant stress levels” by K. J. Niklas, H.-C. Spatz, Trees, (2000) 14:230–237. Trees 15:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McMahon TA (1975) The mechanical design of trees. Sci Am 233:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Meng SX, Lieffers VJ, Reid DEB, Rudnicki M, Silins U, Jin M (2006) Reducing stem bending increases the height growth of tall pines. J Exp Bot 57(12):3175–3182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Metzger C (1893) Der Wind als massgebender Faktor fur das Wachstum der Baume. Mundener forstl Hefte 3:35–86Google Scholar
  34. Morgan J, Cannell MGR (1994) Shape of tree stems––a re-examination of the uniform stress hypothesis. Tree Physiol 14:49–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nicholls JWP (1982) Wind action, leaning trees and compression wood in Pinus radiata D.Don. Aust For Res 12:75–91Google Scholar
  36. Niklas KJ, Spatz H-C (2000a) Response to Klaus Mattheck’s letter. Trees 15:64–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Niklas KJ, Spatz H-C (2000b) Wind-induced stresses in cherry trees: evidence against the hypothesis of constant stress levels. Trees 14:230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Park J (2004) The incidence of resin pockets. NZ J For 49(3):32Google Scholar
  39. Pruyn ML, Ewers BJ III, Telewski FW (2000) Thigmomorphogenesis: changes in the morphology and mechanical properties of two Populus hybrids in response to mechanical perturbation. Tree Physiol 20:535–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Quine CP, Gardiner BA, Coutts MP, Pyatt DG (1995) Forests and wind: management to minimise damage. Forestry Commission Bulletin 114, HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. R Development Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  42. Rees DJ, Grace J (1980) The effects of wind on the extension growth of Pinus contorta Douglas. Forestry 53:145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Riech FP, Ching KK (1970) Infuence of bending stress on wood formation of young Douglas-fir. Holzforschung 24:68–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Savill PS (1983) Silviculture in windy climates. For Abstr 44(8):473–488Google Scholar
  45. Seifert T, Breibeck J, Seifert S, Biber P (2010) Resin pocket occurrence in Norway spruce depending on tree and climate variables. For Ecol Manage 260(3):302–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sellier D, Fourcaud T (2009) Crown structure and wood properties: influence on tree sway and response to high winds. Am J Bot 96(5):885–896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Skatter S, Kucera B (1997) Spiral grain––an adaptation of trees to withstand stem breakage caused by wind-induced torsion. Holz Als Roh-Und Werkstoff 55(4):207–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Somerville A (1980) Resin pockets and related defects of Pinus radiata grown in New Zealand. NZ J For Sci 10:439–444Google Scholar
  49. Telewski FW (1989) Structure and function of flexure wood in Abies fraseri. Tree Physiol 5:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Telewski FW (1995) Wind-induced physiological and developmental responses in trees. In: Coutts MP, Grace J (eds) Wind and trees. Cambridge University Press, UK, pp 237–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Telewski FW (2012) Is windswept tree growth negative thigmotropism? Plant Sci 184:20–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Telewski FW, Jaffe MJ (1986) Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation. Physiol Plant 66:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Temnerud E (1996) Pitch pockets in Picea abies: variation in amount, number and size within trees and within a stand. Scand J For Res 11:164–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Temnerud E (1997) Formation and prediction of resin pockets in Picea abies (L.) Karst. Doctoral thesis Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae Silvestria 26:56Google Scholar
  55. Temnerud E, Valinger E, Sundberg B (1999) Induction of resin pockets in seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. by mechanical bending stress during growth. Holzforschung 53:386–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Timell TE (1986) Compression wood in gymnosperms, vol 1–3. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsoumis G (1991) Wood science and technology of wood—structure, properties, utilisation. Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Valinger E (1992) Effects of wind sway on stem form and crown development of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Aust For 55:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Watt MS, Downes GM, Jones T, Ottenschlaeger M, Leckie AC, Smaill SJ, Kimberley MO, Brownlie R (2009) Effect of stem guying on the incidence of resin pockets. For Ecol Manage 258(9):1913–1917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Watt MS, Kimberley MO, Downes GM, Bruce J, Ottenschlaeger ML, Jones TG, Brownlie RK, Leckie AC, Smaill SJ, Xue J (2011) Characterisation of within-tree and within-ring resin-pocket density in Pinus radiata across an environmental range in New Zealand. NZ J For Sci 41:141–150Google Scholar
  61. Wernsdorfer H, Reck P, Seeling U (2002) Mapping and predicting resin pockets in stems of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). In: Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop IUFRO 50104, Harrison Hot Springs, British Columbia, Canada, September 8–15:68–77Google Scholar
  62. Wilson BF (1968) Effect of girdling on cambial activity in white pine. Can J Bot 46:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wilson BF, Gartner BL (2002) Effects of phloem girdling in conifers on apical control of branches, growth allocation and air in wood. Tree Physiol 22:347–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Woollons R, Manley B, Park J (2008) Factors influencing the formation of resin pockets in Pruned radiata pine butt logs from New Zealand. NZ J For Sci 38(2–3):323–334Google Scholar
  65. Zhu J, Liu Z, Li X, Matsuzaki T, Gonda Y (2004) Review: effects of wind on trees. J For Res 15:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Moore
    • 1
  • David J. Cown
    • 1
  • John R. Lee
    • 1
  • Russell B. McKinley
    • 1
  • Rod K. Brownlie
    • 1
  • Trevor G. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  • Geoffrey M. Downes
    • 3
  1. 1.ScionRotoruaNew Zealand
  2. 2.The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research LimitedPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  3. 3.Forest Quality Pty. Ltd.HuonvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations