, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 915–921 | Cite as

Comparative axial widening of phloem and xylem conduits in small woody plants

  • Giai Petit
  • Alan Crivellaro
Original Paper


Key message

Along the stem axis phloem’s sieve elements increase in diameter basally at rates comparable to those of xylem conduits and in agreement with principles of hydraulic optimization.


Plant physiology relies on the efficiency of the two long-distance transport systems of xylem and phloem. Xylem architecture comprises conduits of small dimensions towards the stem apex, where transpiration-induced tensions are the highest along the root-to-leaves hydraulic pathway, and widen basally to minimize the path length resistance to water flow. Instead, information on phloem anatomy and allometry is extremely scarce, although potentially relevant for the efficiency of sugar transportation. We measured the hydraulic diameter (Dh) of both xylem conduits and phloem sieve elements in parallel at different heights along the stem of a small tree of Picea abies, Fraxinus excelsior and Salix eleagnos. Dh increased from the stem apex to base in both xylem and phloem, with a higher scaling exponent (b) of sieve elements than that of tracheids in the conifer (0.19 vs. 0.14) and lower than that of vessels in the angiosperms (0.14–0.22 vs. 0.19–0.40). In addition, sieve elements were larger than tracheids in P. abies and narrower than angiosperms vessels at any height along the stem. In conclusion, axial conduit widening would seem to be a key feature of both xylem and phloem long-distance transport architectures.


Phloem Xylem Widening Tapering Sieve tubes Long-distance transport 



The manuscript was inspired and supported by the EU COST Action FP1106 (STReESS). Alan Crivellaro received financial support from the University of Padova (“Assegno di Ricerca Junior” CPDr124554/12).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-ForestaliUniversità degli Studi di PadovaLegnaroItaly

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