Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 28, Issue 3, pp 901–914 | Cite as

Transpiration and stomatal control: a cross-species study of leaf traits in 39 evergreen and deciduous broadleaved subtropical tree species

  • Wenzel KröberEmail author
  • Helge Bruelheide
Original Paper

Abstract

Key message

Using an extensive dataset for 39 subtropical broadleaved tree species, we found traits of the leaf economics spectrum to be linked to mean stomatal conductance but not to stomatal regulation.

Abstract

The aim of our study was to establish links between stomatal control and functional leaf traits. We hypothesized that mean and maximum stomatal conductance (g s) varies with the traits described by the leaf economics spectrum, such as specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content, and that high g s values correspond to species with tender leaves and high photosynthetic capacity. In addition, we hypothesized that species with leaves of low stomata density have more limited stomatal closure than those with high stomata density. In order to account for confounding site condition effects, we made use of a common garden situation in which 39 deciduous and evergreen species of the same age were grown in a biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiment in Jiangxi (China). Daily courses of g s were measured with porometry, and the species-specific g s~vpd relationships were modeled. Our results show that mean stomatal conductance can be predicted from leaf traits that represent the leaf economics spectrum, with a positive relationship being related to leaf nitrogen content and a negative relationship with the leaf carbon: nitrogen ratio. In contrast, parameters of stomatal control were related to traits unassociated with the leaf economics spectrum. The maximum of the conductance~vpd curve was positively related to leaf carbon content and vein length. The vpd at the point of inflection of the conductance~vpd curve was lower for species with higher stomata density and higher for species with a high leaf carbon content. Overall, stomata size and density as well as vein length were more effective at explaining stomatal regulation than traits used in the leaf economics spectrum.

Keywords

BEF-China Biodiversity ecosystem functioning Leaf economics spectrum Leaf traits Stomatal conductance Subtropics 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to Xuefei Yang, Sabine Both, Lin Chen and Kaitian Wang for coordinating the fieldwork establishing the BEF-China experiment. We are also grateful to the whole BEF-China research group for their general support. BEF-China is mainly funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG FOR 891/1 and 2) and funding for this particular project was provided by the German Research Foundation to H.B. (DFG BR 1698/9-2). We are also thankful for the travel grants and summer schools financed by the Sino-German Centre for Research Promotion in Beijing (GZ 524, 592, 698, 699 and 785). In addition we would like to thank Isa Plath, David Eichenberg, Michael Staab, Katja Grotius, Silvana Tornack, Heike Heklau, Lin Chen, and Shouren Zhang for their support in the field and in the lab.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Aasamaa K, Sõber A (2011) Stomatal sensitivities to changes in leaf water potential, air humidity, CO2 concentration and light intensity, and the effect of abscisic acid on the sensitivities in six temperate deciduous tree species. Environ Exp Bot 71:72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aasamaa K, Sõber A, Rahi M (2001) Leaf anatomical characteristics associated with shoot hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance and stomatal sensitivity to changes of leaf water status in temperate deciduous trees. Aust J Plant Physiol 28:765–774Google Scholar
  3. Acharya BR, Assmann SM (2009) Hormone interactions in stomatal function. Plant Mol Biol 69:451–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Augé RM, Green CD, Stodola AJW et al (2000) Correlations of stomatal conductance with hydraulic and chemical factors in several deciduous tree species in a natural habitat. New Phytol 145:483–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodribb TJ, Holbrook NM (2005) Leaf physiology does not predict leaf habit; examples from tropical dry forest. Trees 19:290–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bruelheide H, Nadrowski K, Assmann T, et al (2014) Designing forest biodiversity experiments: general considerations illustrated by a new large experiment in subtropical China. Methods Ecol Evol 5(1):74–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Camposeo S, Palasciano M, Vivaldi GA, Godini A (2011) Effect of increasing climatic water deficit on some leaf and stomatal parameters of wild and cultivated almonds under Mediterranean conditions. Sci Hortic 127:234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter S, Smith N (1975) Stomatal distribution and size in southern Appalachian hardwoods. Can J Bot 53:1153–1156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaturvedi RK, Raghubanshi AS, Singh JS (2013) Growth of tree seedlings in a tropical dry forest in relation to soil moisture and leaf traits. JPE 6:158–170Google Scholar
  10. Choat B, Ball M, Luly J et al (2006) Seasonal patterns of leaf gas exchange and water relations in dry rain forest trees of contrasting leaf phenology. Tree Physiol 26:657–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornelissen H, Lavorel S, Garnier E et al (2003) A handbook of protocols for standardised and easy measurement of plant functional traits worldwide. Aust J Bot 51:335–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cowan IR (1982) Regulation of water use in relation to carbon gain in higher plants. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 589–613Google Scholar
  13. Cowan IR, Farquhar G (1977) Stomatal function in relation to leaf metabolism and environment. In: Jennings DH (ed) Integration of activity in the higher plant. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 471–505Google Scholar
  14. Eamus D, Taylor DT, Macinnis-Ng CMO et al (2008) Comparing model predictions and experimental data for the response of stomatal conductance and guard cell turgor to manipulations of cuticular conductance, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference and temperature: feedback mechanisms are able to account for all observations. Plant Cell Environ 31:269–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Franks PJ, Beerling DJ (2009) Maximum leaf conductance driven by CO2 effects on stomatal size and density over geologic time. PNAS 106:10343–10347PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Franks PJ, Farquhar GD (2007) The mechanical diversity of stomata and its significance in gas-exchange control. Plant Physiol 143:78–87PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Franks PJ, Drake PL, Beerling DJ (2009) Plasticity in maximum stomatal conductance constrained by negative correlation between stomatal size and density: an analysis using Eucalyptus globulus. Plant Cell Environ 32:1737–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gerlach D (1984) Botanische Mikrotechnik. Thieme, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Hendry G, Grime J (1993) Methods in comparative plant ecology: a laboratory manual. Chapman & Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hetherington A, Woodward F (2003) The role of stomata in sensing and driving environmental change. Nature 424:901–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hiromi T, Ichie T, Kenzo T, Ninomiya I (2012) Interspecific variation in leaf water use associated with drought tolerance in four emergent dipterocarp species of a tropical rain forest in Borneo. J For Res 17:369–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobsen AL, Pratt RB, Ewers FW, Davis SD (2007) Cavitation resistance among 26 chaparral species of southern California. Ecol Monogr 77:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacobsen AL, Pratt RB, Davis SD, Ewers FW (2008) Comparative community physiology: nonconvergence in water relations among three semi-arid shrub communities. New Phytol 180:100–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jarvis AJ, Davies WJ (1998) The coupled response of stomatal conductance to photosynthesis and transpiration. J Exp Bot 49:399–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones HG (1998) Stomatal control of photosynthesis and transpiration. J Exp Bot 49:387–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Juhrbandt J, Leuschner C, Hölscher D (2004) The relationship between maximal stomatal conductance and leaf traits in eight Southeast Asian early successional tree species. Forest Ecol Manage 202:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kröber W, Bruelheide H, Böhnke M et al (2012) Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-east China. PLoS One 7:e35742PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Larcher W (2003) Physiological plant ecology, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Hong Kong, London, Milan, Paris, TokyoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leuning R (1995) A critical appraisal of a combined stomatal-photosynthesis model for C3 plants. Plant Cell Environ 18:339–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu C–C, Liu Y-G, Guo K et al (2011) Comparative ecophysiological responses to drought of two shrub and four tree species from karst habitats of Southwestern China. Trees 25:537–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu N, Ren H, Yang L et al (2012) Interactions between native tree species and a dominant shrub Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. JTFS 24:455–464Google Scholar
  32. Lüttge U, Hertel B (2009) Diurnal and annual rhythms in trees. Trees 23:683–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Martin TA, Brown KJ, Cermák J et al (1997) Crown conductance and tree and stand transpiration in a second-growth Abies amabilis forest. Can J For Res 27:797–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mcelwain JC (2004) Climate-independent paleoaltimetry using stomatal density in fossil leaves as a proxy for CO2 partial pressure. Geology 32:1017–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Miyazawa SI, Livingston NJ, Turpin DH (2006) Stomatal development in new leaves is related to the stomatal conductance of mature leaves in poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides). J Exp Bot 57:373–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murray FW (1967) On the computation of saturation vapor pressure. J Appl Meteorol 6:203–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nardini A, Salleo S (2000) Limitation of stomatal conductance by hydraulic traits: sensing or preventing xylem cavitation? Trees 15:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oren R, Sperry JS, Katul GG et al (1999) Survey and synthesis of intra- and interspecific variation in stomatal sensitivity to vapour pressure deficit. Plant Cell Environ 22:1515–1526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Osnas JLD, Lichstein JW, Reich PB, Pacala SW (2013) Global leaf trait relationships: mass, area, and the leaf economics spectrum. Science 340:741–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Patanè C (2011) Leaf area index, leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance as affected by soil water deficit and vpd in processing tomato in semi arid mediterranean climate. J Agron Crop Sci 197:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Poorter L, Bongers F (2006) Leaf traits are good predictors of plant performance across 53 rain forest species. Ecology 87:1733–1743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. R Core Team (2013) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.r-project.org/. Accessed 1 Feb 2013
  43. Roelfsema MRG, Hedrich R (2005) In the light of stomatal opening: new insights into “the watergate”. New Phytol 167:665–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sack L, Frole K (2006) Leaf structural diversity is related to hydraulic capacity in tropical rain forest trees. Ecology 87:483–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sales-Come R, Hölscher D (2010) Variability and grouping of leaf traits in multi-species reforestation (Leyte, Philippines). For Ecol Manage 260:846–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Santiago LS, Kim SC (2009) Correlated evolution of leaf shape and physiology in the woody Sonchus alliance (Asteraceae: Sonchinae) in Macaronesia. Int J Plant Sci 170:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schulze E, Kelliher F, Körner C et al (1994) Relationships among maximum stomatal conductance, ecosystem surface conductance, carbon assimilation rate, and plant nitrogen nutrition: a global ecology scaling exercise. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 25:629–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Siegert CM, Levia DF (2011) Stomatal conductance and transpiration of co-occurring seedlings with varying shade tolerance. Trees 25:1091–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sobrado MA (1998) Hydraulic conductance and water potential differences inside leaves of tropical evergreen and deciduous species. Biol Plant 40:633–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Strobl S, Fetene M, Beck EH (2011) Analysis of the “shelter tree-effect” of natural and exotic forest canopies on the growth of young Podocarpus falcatus trees in southern Ethiopia. Trees 25:769–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Van Der Burgh J, Visscher H, Dilcher DL, Kurschner WM (1993) Paleoatmospheric signatures in neogene fossil leaves. Science (New York, NY) 260:1788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. van Hoof TB, Bunnik FPM, Waucomont JGM et al (2006) Forest re-growth on medieval farmland after the Black Death pandemic—implications for atmospheric CO2 levels. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 237:396–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Wittenberghe S, Adriaenssens S, Staelens J et al (2012) Variability of stomatal conductance, leaf anatomy, and seasonal leaf wettability of young and adult European beech leaves along a vertical canopy gradient. Trees 26:1427–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Waring RH, Landsberg JJ (2011) Generalizing plant-water relations to landscapes. JPE 4:101–113Google Scholar
  55. Whitehead D (1998) Regulation of stomatal conductance and transpiration in forest canopies. Tree Physiol 18:633–644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Willmer CM, Fricker M (1996) Stomata, 2nd edn. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wong SC, Cowan IR, Farquhar GD (1979) Stomatal conductance correlates with photosynthetic capacity. Nature 282:424–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wright JP, Sutton-Grier A (2012) Does the leaf economic spectrum hold within local species pools across varying environmental conditions? Funct Ecol 26:1390–1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M et al (2004) The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yang X, Bauhus J, Both S, Fang T, Härdtle W, Kröber W, Ma K, Nadrowski K, Pei K, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Scholten T, Seidler G, Schmid B, Oheimb G, Bruelheide H (2013) Establishment success in a forest biodiversity and ecosystem functioning experiment in subtropical China (BEF-China). Eur J For Res 132:593–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang Y-J, Meinzer FC, Qi J-H et al (2013) Midday stomatal conductance is more related to stem rather than leaf water status in subtropical deciduous and evergreen broadleaf trees. Plant Cell Environ 36:149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Biology/Geobotany and Botanical GardenMartin-Luther-University Halle-WittenbergHalle (Saale)Germany
  2. 2.German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-LeipzigLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations