Advertisement

Trees

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 31–40 | Cite as

The number of days on which increment occurs is the primary determinant of annual ring width in Callitris intratropica

  • David M. Drew
  • Anna E. Richards
  • Garry D. Cook
  • Geoffrey M. Downes
  • Warwick Gill
  • Patrick J. Baker
Original Paper

Abstract

Key message

The number of days on which a measureable increment occurred, and the average rate of stem growth, rather than the overall duration of the wet season, were the main determinants of ring width in young Callitris intratropica trees. These effects were amplified by competition.

Abstract

Dendroclimatology of tropical tree species is an important tool for understanding past climatic variability at low latitudes where long-term weather records are often absent. Despite the growing number of published tropical tree-ring chronologies, however, still little is known of the factors that control annual ring formation in tropical tree species. In this paper we used an endemic Australian conifer, Callitris intratropica, to study the intra-annual dynamics of seasonal growth and xylem formation, and the effects of environmental conditions and competition, on growth ring formation. We combined high-resolution growth and climate monitoring (every 15 min for 2 years) with less frequent cambial sampling. Trees exhibited marked reductions in growth during certain periods within the rainy season when rainfall was not as regular and VPD was high. Overall, we found that ring width was most influenced by the number of days when increment occurred; regardless of how early the growing season began or ended, and by the rates of tracheid production. The effect of competition was also important. Trees growing in dense groves had narrower annual rings (4.6 mm) than trees that were growing in the open (6.7 mm), due to less active cambia, slower rates of xylem production and expansion and more increment days, although the overall growing season duration was also shorter in grove trees.

Keywords

Tropical Dendroclimatology Drought Cambium Xylem Dendrometer Cypress pine Savanna 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thank you to Robert Eager and Jon Schatz based at the Tropical Ecosystem Research Centre in Darwin for help with setting up the instrumentation. Thanks also to Chris Beadle, Jacqui England and anonymous reviewers for many helpful comments and suggestions. This work was funded in part by the Hermon Slade foundation, and the CSIRO office of the Chief executive.

References

  1. Baker PJ, Palmer JG, D’Arrigo R (2008) The dendrochronology of Callitris intratropica in northern Australia: annual ring structure, chronology development and climate correlations. Aust J Bot 56:311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowman DMJS, Wilson BA, Davis GW (1988) Response of Callitris intratropica. In: R.T. Baker, H.G. Smith to fire protection. Australian Journal of Ecology, Murgenella 13: 147–159Google Scholar
  3. Briffa KR, Osborn TJ, Schweingruber FH, Jones PD, Shiyatov SG, Vaganov EA (2002) Tree-ring width and density data around the northern hemisphere: part 1, local and regional climate signals. Holocene 12:737–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlquist S (1988) Comparative wood anatomy: systematic, ecological and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood. Springer-Verlag, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook ER (1987) The decomposition of tree-ring series for environmental studies. Tree-ring Bull 47:37–59Google Scholar
  6. Cook GD, Heerdegen RG (2001) Spatial variation in the duration of the rainy season in monsoonal Australia. Int J Clim 21:1723–1732Google Scholar
  7. Cook GD, Goyens CMAC (2008) The impact of wind on trees in Australian tropical savannas: lessons from cyclone Monica. Austral Ecol 33:462–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cook ER, Anchukaitis KJ, Buckley BM, D’Arrigo RD, Jacoby GC, Wright WE (2010) Asian monsoon failure and mega drought during the last millennium. Science 328:486–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cullen LE, Grierson PF (2007) A stable oxygen, but not carbon, isotope chronology of Callitris columellaris reflects recent climate change in north-western Australia. Clim Chan 85:213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cullen LE, Grierson PF (2009) Multi-decadal scale variability in autumn-winter rainfall in south-western Australia since 1655 AD as reconstructed from tree rings of Callitris columellaris. Clim Dyn 33:433–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Arrigo R, Baker P, Palmer J, Anchukaitis K (2008) Experimental reconstruction of monsoon drought variability for Australasia using tree rings and corals. Geophys Res Lett 35Google Scholar
  12. Denne MP (1971) Temperature and tracheid development in Pinus sylvestris seedlings. J Exp Bot 22:362–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Downes GM, Beadle C, Gensler W, Mummery D, Worledge D (1999) Diurnal variation and radial growth of stems in young plantation eucalypts. In: R Wimmer, RE (Eds.) VetterTree ring analysis. Biological, methodological and environmental aspects. CAB International, New York, pp 83–104Google Scholar
  14. Downes GM, Drew DM, Battaglia M, Schulze E-D (2008) Measuring and modelling stem growth and wood formation: an overview. Dendrochronologia 27:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drew DM, Pammenter NW (2007) Developmental rates and morphological properties of fibres in two eucalypt clones at sites differing in water availability. South Hemis Fore J 69:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drew DM, O’Grady AP, Downes GM, Read J, Worledge D (2008) Daily patterns of stem size variation in irrigated and non-irrigated eucalyptus globulus. Tree Physiol 28:1573–1581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Drew DM, Richards AE, Downes GM, Cook GD, Baker P (2011) The development of seasonal tree water deficit in Callitris intratropica. Tree Physiol 31:953–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Drew DM, Allen K, Downes GM, Evans R, Battaglia M, Baker P (2013) Wood properties in a long-lived conifer reveal strong climate signals where ring-width series do not. Tree Physiol 33:37–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duff GA, Myers BA, Williams RJ, Eamus D, O’Grady AP, Fordyce IR (1997) Seasonal patterns in soil moisture, vapour pressure deficit, tree canopy cover and pre-dawn water potential in a northern Australian savanna. Aust J Bot 45:211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fensham RJ, Fairfax RJ, Ward DP (2009) Drought-induced tree death in savanna. Glob Chan Biol 15:380–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic Press, New York, p 567Google Scholar
  22. Graham EA, Mulkey SS, Kitajima K, Phillips NG, Wright SJ (2003) Cloud cover limits net CO2 uptake and growth of a rainforest tree during tropical rainy seasons. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:572–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M, Eronen M (2004) Detection of climate signal in dendrochronological data analysis: a comparison of tree-ring standardization methods. Theoret Appl Climatol 79:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Isbell RF (2002) The Australian Soil Classification. Revised Edition. CSIRO Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  25. Jones PD, Briffa KR, Osborn TJ, Lough JM, van Ommen TD, Vinther BM, Luterbacher J, Wahl ER, Zwiers FW, Mann ME, Schmidt GA, Ammann CM, Buckley BM, Cobb KM, Esper J, Goosse H, Graham N, Jansen E, Kiefer T, Kull C, Kuttel M, Mosley-Thompson E, Overpeck JT, Riedwyl N, Schulz M, Tudhope AW, Villalba R, Wanner H, Wolff E, Xoplaki E (2009) High-resolution palaeoclimatology of the last millennium: a review of current status and future prospects. Holocene 19:3–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lloyd AH, Fastie CL (2002) Spatial and temporal variability in the growth and climate response of tree line trees in Alaska. Clim Chan 52:481–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McKenzie NJ, Jacquier D, Isbell RF, Brown K (2004) Australian Soils and Landscapes: An Illustrated Compendium. CSIRO Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  28. O’Donnell AJ, Cullen LE, Lachlan McCaw W, Boer MM, Grierson PF (2010) Dendroecological potential of Callitris preissii for dating historical fires in semi-arid shrub lands of southern Western Australia. Dendrochronologia 28:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ogden J (1981) Dendrochronological studies and the determination of tree ages in the Australian tropics. J Biogeogr 8:405–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pearson SG, Searson MJ (2002) High-resolution data from Australian trees. Aust J Bot 50:431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pearson S, Hua Q, Allen K, Bowman DMJS (2011) Validating putatively cross-dated Callitris tree-ring chronologies using bomb-pulse radiocarbon analysis. Aust J Bot 59:7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rathgeber CBK, Rossi S, Bontemps J-D (2011) Cambial activity related to tree size in a mature silver-fir plantation. Ann Bot 108:429–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ross KA, Bedward M, Ellis MV, Deane A, Simpson CC, Bradstock RA (2008) Modelling the dynamics of white cypress pine Callitris glaucophylla woodlands in inland south-eastern Australia. Ecol Model 211:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Menardi R (2006) Trephor: a new tool for sampling micro cores from tree stems. IAWA J 27:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Carrer M (2008) Age-dependent xylogenesis in timberline conifers. New Phytol 177:199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Russell-Smith J (2006) Recruitment dynamics of the long-lived obligate seeders Callitris intratropica (Cupressaceae) and Petraeomyrtus punicea (Myrtaceae). Aust J Bot 54:479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sano M, Buckley B, Sweda T (2009) Tree-ring based hydro climate reconstruction over northern Vietnam from Fokienia hodginsii: eighteenth century mega-drought and tropical Pacific influence. Clim Dyn 33:331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sgherza C, Cullen LE, Grierson PF (2010) Climate relationships with tree-ring width and d13C of three Callitris species from semiarid woodlands in south-western Australia. Aust J Bot 58:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Skene DS (1969) The period of time taken by cambial derivatives to grow and differentiate into tracheids in Pinus radiata. Ann Bot 33:253–262Google Scholar
  40. Skene DS (1972) The kinetics of tracheid development in Tsuga canadensis and its relation to tree vigour. Ann Bot 36:179–187Google Scholar
  41. Spurr AR (1969) A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy. J Ultrastruct Res 26:31–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams J, Prebble RE, Williams WT, Hignett CT (1983) The influence of texture, structure and clay minerology on the soil moisture characteristic. Aust J Soil Res 21:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wilmking M, Juday GP, Barber VA, Zald HSJ (2004) Recent climate warming forces contrasting growth responses of white spruce at tree line in Alaska through temperature thresholds. Glob Chan Biol 10:1724–1736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zweifel R, Item H, Häsler R (2001) Link between diurnal stem radius changes and tree water relations. Tree Physiol 21:869–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zweifel R, Zimmermann L, Zeugin F, Newbery DM (2006) Intra-annual radial growth and water relations of trees: implications towards a growth mechanism. J Exp Bot 57:1445–1459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Drew
    • 1
  • Anna E. Richards
    • 2
  • Garry D. Cook
    • 2
  • Geoffrey M. Downes
    • 1
    • 3
  • Warwick Gill
    • 4
  • Patrick J. Baker
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesHobartAustralia
  2. 2.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesWinnellieAustralia
  3. 3.CRC for ForestryHobartAustralia
  4. 4.Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural ScienceUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  5. 5.School of Biological SciencesMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  6. 6.Department Forest and Ecosystem ScienceThe University of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations