, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 497–510 | Cite as

Identification of new S-RNase self-incompatibility alleles and characterization of natural mutations in Iranian almond cultivars

  • Akram Hafizi
  • Behrouz Shiran
  • Bahram Maleki
  • Ali Imani
  • Bojana Banović
Original Paper


The two main objectives of this research were to identify new S-RNase alleles in Iranian almond cultivars and to characterize naturally occurring mutations in these alleles that may cause self-compatibility. We investigated S genotypes of 22 Iranian almond cultivars using stylar RNase electrophoresis, PCR and DNA sequencing. We report six previously unidentified P. dulcis S-RNase alleles (S 45 , S 46 , S 47 , S 48 , S 49 and S 50 ). Four of 12 tested S-RNases were found to be non-functional in vitro: S 49 , S 50 , S 24 /S na and S 25 /S 47 . Detected point mutations in the C3 coding region of S 49 - and S 50 -RNase, leading to the replacement of a highly conserved cysteine and histidine residues, are with the highest probability the reason of these S-RNases inactivity. Results also suggested that ten Iranian almond cultivars display unique S genotype. All presented data confirm Iranian cultivars as valuable almond sources which are of interest to almond breeding and conservation programs.


Almond Prunus dulcis Breeding PCR Self-incompatibility S-allele 



Cross incompatibility group


Isoelectric point






Signal peptide



The authors are grateful to the Zanjan University, the Shahrekord University and Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Karaj for financial assistance, and for providing plant material used in this work. We thank Dr. Ali Imani (Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Karaj) for providing unpublished information about the field performance of the almond cultivars used in this study. We also thank Dr. Pedro Martínez-Gómez for his valuable comments and suggestions. We thank Ms Ivana Bosić for editing the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akram Hafizi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Behrouz Shiran
    • 2
    • 5
  • Bahram Maleki
    • 1
  • Ali Imani
    • 3
  • Bojana Banović
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Plant BreedingZanjan UniversityZanjanIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Breeding and BiotechnologyShahrekord UniversityShahrekordIran
  3. 3.Sections of HorticultureAgriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre of KarajKarajIran
  4. 4.Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic EngineeringUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  5. 5.Institute of BiotechnologyShahrekord UniversityShahrekordIran

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