Trees

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 425–433 | Cite as

Seasonal dynamics of wood formation in Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) along an altitudinal gradient in the Hyrcanian forest, Iran

  • Reza Oladi
  • Kambiz Pourtahmasi
  • Dieter Eckstein
  • Achim Bräuning
Original Paper

Abstract

The cambium dynamics and wood formation of Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was investigated during the 2008 growing season in the Nowshahr Hyrcanian forest, Iran (36°N, 51°E). Three study sites were selected along an altitudinal gradient (650, 1,100 and 1,600 m a.s.l.), and cambial activity rates of cell formation and cell maturation were studied on micro-cores collected in intervals of 10–20 days. The cambium reactivation of the low-altitude (L) and mid-altitude (M) trees occurred contemporaneously in late March, and also the consecutive phases of cell differentiation took place almost at the same time; however, the entry into cambial dormancy varied considerably from late August to mid-November. Due to lower temperature, the upper-altitude (U) trees showed a 10-day delay in their cambium reactivation, an earlier entry into cambium dormancy (mid-September) and a slower growth rate resulting in narrower tree rings. Despite these differences, the daily increment rates of the trees at all sites reached maximum values coincidently in the early June. Since the photoperiod is the only common external factor among different sites, it is concluded that the timing of the highest growth rate is controlled by the photoperiod.

Keywords

Oriental beech Xylogenesis Cambium activity Cell differentiation Alborz Mountains 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Jeong-Wook Seo, Hamburg, for his technical assistance. We also thank the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst) to fund a 6-month stay of the first author at the Universities of Erlangen-Nuremberg and Hamburg (Germany) to get familiar with the “micro-coring” method.

References

  1. Antonova GF, Cherkashin VP, Stasova VV, Varaksina TN (1995) Daily dynamics in xylem cell radial growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Trees 10:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnett JR (1992) Reactivation of the cambium in Aesculus hippocastanum L.: a transmission electron microscope study. Ann Bot 70:169–177Google Scholar
  3. Begum S, Nakaba S, Oribe Y, Kubo T, Funada R (2007) Induction of cambial reactivation by localized heating in a deciduous hardwood hybrid poplar (Populus sieboldii × P. grandidentata). Ann Bot 100:439–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begum S, Nakaba S, Oribe Y, Kubo T, Funada R (2010) Cambial sensitivity to rising temperatures by natural condition and artificial heating from late winter to early spring in the evergreen conifer Cryptomeria japonica. Trees 24:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bräuning A, Homeier J, Cueva E, Beck E, Günter S (2008) Growth dynamics of trees in tropical mountain ecosystems. Ecol Stud 198:291–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaffey N (2002) An introduction to the problems of working with trees. In: Chaffey N (ed) Wood formation in trees (cell and molecular biology techniques). Taylor & Francis, London, pp 9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Čufar K, Prislan P, de Luis M, Gričar J (2008) Tree-ring variation, wood formation and phenology of beech (Fagus sylvatica) from a representative site in Slovenia, SE Central Europe. Trees 22:749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Luis M, Gričar J, Čufar K, Raventós J (2007) Seasonal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus halepensis from dry and semi-arid ecosystems in Spain. IAWA J 28:389–404Google Scholar
  9. Deslauriers A, Morin H (2005) Intra-annual tracheid production in balsam fir stems and the effect of meteorological variables. Trees 19:402–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deslauriers A, Rossi S, Anfodillo T (2007) Dendrometer and intra-annual tree growth: what kind of information can be inferred? Dendrochronologia 25:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deslauriers A, Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Saracino A (2008) Cambial phenology, wood formation and temperature thresholds in two contrasting years at high altitude in southern Italy. Tree Physiol 28:863–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dittmar C, Zech W, Elling W (2003) Growth variations of Common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under different climatic and environmental conditions in Europe—a dendroecological study. For Ecol Manage 173:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dünisch O, Rühmann O (2006) Kinetics of cell formation and growth stresses in the secondary xylem of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. and Khaya ivorensis A. Chev. (Meliaceae). Wood Sci Technol 40:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frankenstein C, Eckstein D, Schmitt U (2005) The onset of cambium activity—a matter of agreement? Dendrochronologia 23:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grace J, Berninger F, Nagy L (2002) Impacts of climate change on the tree line. Ann Bot 90:537–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gričar J, Čufar K (2008) Seasonal dynamics of phloem and xylem formation in silver fir and Norway spruce as affected by drought. Russ J Plant Physiol 55:538–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gričar J, Zupančič M, Čufar K, Oven P (2007) Regular cambial activity and xylem and phloem formation in locally heated and cooled stem portions of Norway spruce. Wood Sci Technol 41:463–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gruber A, Baumgartner D, Zimmermann J, Oberhuber W (2009) Temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus cembra along the alpine treeline ecotone and the effect of climate variables. Trees 23:623–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grünwald C, Ruel K, Schmitt U (2002) Differentiation of xylem cells in rolC transgenic aspen trees—a study of secondary cell wall development. Ann For Sci 59:679–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kahle HP (2006) Impact of the drought in 2003 on intra- and inter-annual stem radial growth of beech and spruce along an altitudinal gradient in the Black Forest, Germany. In: Heinrich I, Gärtner H, Monbarron M, Schleser GH (eds) Tree rings in archaeology, climatology and ecology (TRACE), vol 4, pp 151–163Google Scholar
  21. Ko Heinrichs D, Tardif JC, Bergeron Y (2007) Xylem production in six tree species growing on an island in the boreal forest region of western Quebec, Canada. Can J Bot 85:518–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krepkowski J, Bräuning A, Gebrekirstos A, Strobl S (2010) Seasonal growth dynamics and climatic control of different tree life forms in Munessa Forest (Ethiopia). Trees. doi:10.1007/s00468-010-0460-7
  23. Mäkinen L, Seo JW, Nöjd P, Schmitt U, Jalkanen R (2008) Seasonal dynamics of wood formation: a comparison between pinning, microcoring and dendrometer measurements. Eur J For Res 127:235–245Google Scholar
  24. Marcati CR, Milanez CRD, Machado SR (2008) Seasonal development of secondary xylem and phloem in Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) Blake (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). Trees 22:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mariaux A (1967–1968) Les cernes dans les bois tropicaux africains, nature et périodicité. Bois et Forêt des Tropiques no. 113:3–14, no. 114:23–27Google Scholar
  26. Marion L, Gričar J, Oven P (2007) Wood formation in urban Norway maple trees studied by the micro-coring method. Dendrochronologia 25:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marvie-Mohadjer MR (2005) Silviculture, 1st edn. University of Tehran Press, Tehran (in Persian)Google Scholar
  28. Moshtagh-Khanamoei MH (2003) The relation between the annual diameter increment of Fagus orientalis and environmental factors (Hyrcanian forest-Iran). Msc thesis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  29. Nobuchi T, Ogata Y, Siripatanadilok S (1995) Seasonal characteristics of wood formation in Hopea odorata and Shorea henryana. IAWA J 16:361–369Google Scholar
  30. Nocetti M, Romagnoli M (2008) Seasonal cambial activity of spruce (Picea abies Karst.) with indented rings in the Paneveggio Forest (Trento, Italy). Acta Biol Cracov Bot 50:27–34Google Scholar
  31. Prislan P, Koch G, Čufar K, Gričar J, Schmitt U (2009) Topochemical investigations of cell walls in developing xylem of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Holzforschung 63:482–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pumijumnong N, Wanyaphet T (2006) Seasonal cambial activity and tree-ring formation of Pinus merkusii and Pinus kesiya in Northern Thailand in dependence on climate. For Ecol Manage 226:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Riding RT, Little CHA (1984) Anatomy and histochemistry of Abies balsamea cambial zone cells during the onset and breaking of dormancy. Can J Bot 62:2570–2579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Morin H (2003) Application of the Gompertz equation for the study of xylem cell development. Dendrochronologia 21:33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rossi S, Anfodillo T, Menardi R (2006a) Trephor: a new tool for sampling microcores from tree stems. IAWA J 27:89–97Google Scholar
  36. Rossi S, Deslauriers A, Anfodillo T, Morin H, Saracino A, Motta R, Borghetti M (2006b) Conifers in cold environments synchronize maximum growth rate of tree-ring formation with day length. New Phytol 170:301–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rossi S, Desiauriers A, Anfodillo T (2007) Evidence of threshold temperatures for xylogenesis in conifers at high altitudes. Oecologia 152:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sagheb-Talebi K, Eslami A (2008) Nature-based silviculture—how can achieve the equilibrium state in uneven-aged oriental beech stands? In: Proceedings of 8th IUFRO international beech symposium, 8–13 September 2008. Hokkaido, Japan, pp 59–61Google Scholar
  39. Sagheb-Talebi K, Sajedi T, Yazdian F (2004) Forests of Iran. Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Technical Publication, no 339, 56 pGoogle Scholar
  40. Sarmadian F, Jafari M (2001) Investigation of forest soil in educational-experimental forest of Tehran University. J Iranian Nat Res, 111 p (special issue)Google Scholar
  41. Sass U, Eckstein D (1995) The variability of vessel size in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and its ecophysiological interpretation. Trees 9:247–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schabenberger O (2005) Nonlinear regression in SAS. University of California, Los Angeles, SAS Library. http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/SAS/library/SASNLin_os.htm. Accessed 27 April 2005
  43. Schmitt U, Möller R, Eckstein D (2000) Seasonal wood formation dynamics of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) as determined by the ‘‘pinning’’ technique. J Appl Bot 74:10–16Google Scholar
  44. Schmitt U, Jalkanen R, Eckstein D (2004) Cambium dynamics of Pinus sylvestris and Betula spp. in the northern boreal forest in Finland. Silva Fenn 38:167–178Google Scholar
  45. Schweingruber FH (2007) Wood structure and environment. Springer series in wood science. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  46. Seo JW, Eckstein D, Schmitt U (2007) The pinning method—from pinning to data preparation. Dendrochronologia 25:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seo JW, Eckstein D, Jalkanen R, Rickebusch S, Schmitt U (2008) Estimating the onset of cambial activity of Scots pine in northern Finland by means of the heat-sum approach. Tree Physiol 28:105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Tardif J, Flannigan M, Bergeron Y (2001) An analysis of the daily radial activity of 7 boreal tree species, Northwestern Québec. Environ Monit Assess 67:141–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thibeault-Martel M, Krause C, Morin H, Rossi S (2008) Cambial activity and intra-annual xylem formation in roots and stems of Abies balsamea and Picea mariana. Ann Bot 102:667–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van der Werf GW, Sass-Klaassen U, Mohren GMJ (2007) The impact of the 2003 summer drought on the intra-annual growth pattern of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on a dry site in the Netherlands. Dendrochronologia 25:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vollenweider P, Dustin I, Hofer R, Vittoz P, Hainard P (1994) A study of the cambial zone and conductive phloem of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) using an image analysis method. Trees 9:106–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wodzicki TJ (1971) Mechanism of xylem differentiation in Pinus silvestris L. J Exp Bot 22:670–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wolter KE (1968) A new method for marking xylem growth. For Sci 14:102–104Google Scholar
  54. Yoshinaga A, Fujita M, Saiki H (1992) Relationships between cell evolution and lignin structural varieties in oak xylem evaluated by microscopic spectrophotometry with separated cell walls. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38:629–637Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reza Oladi
    • 1
  • Kambiz Pourtahmasi
    • 1
  • Dieter Eckstein
    • 2
  • Achim Bräuning
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Division Wood Biology, Department of Wood ScienceUniversity of HamburgHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Institute of GeographyFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany

Personalised recommendations