, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 43–52 | Cite as

Cambial sensitivity to rising temperatures by natural condition and artificial heating from late winter to early spring in the evergreen conifer Cryptomeria japonica

  • Shahanara Begum
  • Satoshi Nakaba
  • Yuichiro Oribe
  • Takafumi Kubo
  • Ryo FunadaEmail author
Original Paper


Differences in the timing of cambial reactivation and the initiation of xylem differentiation in response to the sum of daily maximum temperatures were studied in two Cryptomeria japonica trees with cambium of different ages under natural and locally heated conditions. In addition, we observed the effects of low temperature on cambial activity. The timing of cambial reactivation and of the initiation of xylem differentiation differed between 55- and 80-year-old cambium under natural conditions. In the 55-year-old cambium, cambial reactivation occurred when the cambial reactivation index (CRI), calculated on the basis of daily maximum temperatures in excess of 10°C, was 94 and 97°C in 2007 and 2008, respectively. In 80-year-old cambium, cambial reactivation occurred when the CRI, calculated on the basis of daily maximum temperatures in excess of 11°C, was 69 and 71°C in 2007 and 2008, respectively. After cambial reactivation in 2007, normal cell division was evident in the cambium even though the minimum temperature had fallen between −2 and −3°C. Under natural conditions, xylem differentiation started 38–44 days after cambial reactivation. In heated stems, the time between cambial reactivation and the initiation of xylem differentiation ranged from 14 to 16 days, a much shorter time than under natural conditions, indicating that continuous exposure to an elevated temperature had induced earlier xylem differentiation. Our observations indicate that the sensitivity to reactivation inducing stimuli of the cambium depends on both the stage of dormancy and tree age of the cambium.


Cambial age Cambial reactivation Cryptomeria japonica Resting and quiescent stages of dormancy Xylem differentiation 



This work was supported, in part, by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan (nos. 17580137, 19580183 and 20.5659).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahanara Begum
    • 1
  • Satoshi Nakaba
    • 1
  • Yuichiro Oribe
    • 2
  • Takafumi Kubo
    • 1
  • Ryo Funada
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of AgricultureTokyo University of Agriculture and TechnologyFuchuJapan
  2. 2.Tohoku Regional Breeding Office, Forest Tree Breeding CenterForestry and Forest Products Research InstituteTakizawaJapan

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