Warm temperature accelerates short photoperiod-induced growth cessation and dormancy induction in hybrid poplar (Populus × spp.)
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There is increasing evidence that temperature, in addition to photoperiod, may be an important factor regulating bud dormancy. The impact of temperature during growth cessation, dormancy development, and subsequent cold acclimation was examined in four hybrid poplar clones with contrasting acclimation patterns: ‘Okanese’—EARLY, ‘Walker’—INT1, ‘Katepwa’—INT2, and ‘Prairie Sky’—LATE. Four day–night temperature treatments (13.5/8.5, 18.5/13.5, 23.5/8.5, and 18.5/3.5°C) were applied during a 60-day induction period to reflect current and predicted future annual variation in autumn temperature for Saskatoon, SK. Warm night temperature (18.5/13.5°C) strongly accelerated growth cessation, dormancy development, and cold acclimation in all four clones. Day temperature had the opposite effect of night temperature. Day and night temperatures appeared to act antagonistically against each other during growth cessation and subsequent dormancy development and cold acclimation. Growth cessation, dormancy development, and cold acclimation in EARLY and LATE were less affected by induction temperature than INT1 and INT2 suggesting that genotypic variations exist in response to temperature. Separating specific phenological stages and the impact by temperature on each clone revealed the complexity of fall phenological changes and their interaction with temperature. Most importantly, future changes in temperature may affect time to growth cessation, subsequently altering the depth of dormancy and cold hardiness in hybrid poplar.
KeywordsBud dormancy Temperature Adaptation Climate change
Funding is gratefully acknowledged from the Agroforestry Division, Agriculture Agri-Food Canada without which this study would not have been possible. Gratitude is also extended to Don Reynard for assistance with this project and for reviewer comments that have positively contributed to this paper.
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