, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 971–979 | Cite as

Warm temperature accelerates short photoperiod-induced growth cessation and dormancy induction in hybrid poplar (Populus × spp.)

  • Lee Anthony KalcsitsEmail author
  • Salim Silim
  • Karen Tanino
Original Paper


There is increasing evidence that temperature, in addition to photoperiod, may be an important factor regulating bud dormancy. The impact of temperature during growth cessation, dormancy development, and subsequent cold acclimation was examined in four hybrid poplar clones with contrasting acclimation patterns: ‘Okanese’—EARLY, ‘Walker’—INT1, ‘Katepwa’—INT2, and ‘Prairie Sky’—LATE. Four day–night temperature treatments (13.5/8.5, 18.5/13.5, 23.5/8.5, and 18.5/3.5°C) were applied during a 60-day induction period to reflect current and predicted future annual variation in autumn temperature for Saskatoon, SK. Warm night temperature (18.5/13.5°C) strongly accelerated growth cessation, dormancy development, and cold acclimation in all four clones. Day temperature had the opposite effect of night temperature. Day and night temperatures appeared to act antagonistically against each other during growth cessation and subsequent dormancy development and cold acclimation. Growth cessation, dormancy development, and cold acclimation in EARLY and LATE were less affected by induction temperature than INT1 and INT2 suggesting that genotypic variations exist in response to temperature. Separating specific phenological stages and the impact by temperature on each clone revealed the complexity of fall phenological changes and their interaction with temperature. Most importantly, future changes in temperature may affect time to growth cessation, subsequently altering the depth of dormancy and cold hardiness in hybrid poplar.


Bud dormancy Temperature Adaptation Climate change 



Funding is gratefully acknowledged from the Agroforestry Division, Agriculture Agri-Food Canada without which this study would not have been possible. Gratitude is also extended to Don Reynard for assistance with this project and for reviewer comments that have positively contributed to this paper.


  1. Colombo SJ, Raitanen EM (1991) Frost hardening in white cedar container seedlings exposed to intermittent short days and cold temperatures. For Chron 67:542–544Google Scholar
  2. Downs RJ, Borthwick HA (1956) Effects of photoperiod on growth of trees. Bot Gaz 117:310–326. doi: 10.1086/335918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Flint HL, Boyce BR, Beattie DJ (1967) Index of injury—a useful expression of freezing injury to plant tissues as determined by the electrolytic method. Can J Plant Sci 47:229–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fuchigami LH, Weiser CJ, Evert DR (1971) Induction of cold acclimation in Cornus stolinifera Michx. Plant Physiol 47:98–103. doi: 10.1104/pp.47.1.98 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fuchigami LH, Weiser CJ, Kobayashi K, Timmis R, Gusta LV (1982) A degree growth stage (ºGS) model and cold acclimation in temperate woody plants. In: Li PH, Sakai A (eds) Plant cold hardiness and freezing stress. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Hanninen H, Kramer K (2007) A framework for modelling the annual cycle of trees in boreal and temperate regions. Silva Fenn 41:167–205Google Scholar
  7. Heide OM (2003) High autumn temperature delays spring bud burst in boreal trees, counterbalancing the effect of climatic warning. Tree Physiol 23:931–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Heide OM, Prestrud AK (2005) Low temperature, but not photoperiod, controls growth cessation, dormancy induction and release in apple and pear. Tree Physiol 25:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Howe GT, Saruul P, Davis J, Chen THH (2000) Quantitative genetics of bud phenology, frost damage, and winter survival in an F2 family of hybrid poplars. Theor Appl Genet 101:632–642. doi: 10.1007/s001220051525 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. IPCC (2007) Clim Change 2007. Climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Junttila O (1980) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on apical growth cessation in two ecotypes of Salix and Betula. Physiol Plant 48:347–352. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1980.tb03266.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Junttila O, Nilsen J, Igeland B (2003) Effect of temperature on the induction of bud dormancy in ecotypes of Betula pubescens and Betula pentandra. Scand J For Res 18:208–217. doi: 10.1080/02827580308624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kramer PJ (1936) Effect of variation in length of day on growth and dormancy of trees. Plant Physiol 11:127–137. doi: 10.1104/pp.11.1.127 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lindén L (2001) Re-analyzing historical records of winter injury in Finnish apple orchards. Can J Plant Sci 81:479–485Google Scholar
  15. Motha RP, Baier W (2005) Impacts of present and future climate change and climate variability on agriculture in the temperate regions: North America. Clim Change 70:137–164. doi: 10.1007/s10584-005-5940-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nitsch JP (1957) Photoperiodism in woody plants. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 70:526–544Google Scholar
  17. Palonen P (2006) Vegetative growth, cold acclimation and dormancy as affected by temperature and photoperiod in six red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. Eur J Hortic Sci 72:1–6Google Scholar
  18. Repo T, Nilsson JE, Rikala R, Ryyppo A, Sutinen ML (2001) Cold hardiness of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In: Bigras F, Colombo S (eds) Conifer cold hardiness. Kluwer, The Netherlands, pp 463–493Google Scholar
  19. Rinne P, Welling A, Kaikuranta P (1998) Onset of freezing tolerance in birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) involves LEA proteins and osmoregulation and is impaired in an ABA-deficient genotype. Plant Cell Environ 21:601–611Google Scholar
  20. Ruttink T, Arend M, Morreel K, Storme V, Rombauts S, Fromm J, Bhalerao RP, Boerjan W, Rohde A (2007) A molecular timetable for apical bud formation and dormancy induction in poplar. Plant Cell 19:2370–2390. doi: 10.1105/tpc.107.052811 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Silim SN, Lavender DP (1994) Seasonal patterns and environmental regulation of frost hardiness in shoots of seedlings of Thuja plicata, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, and Picea glauca. Can J Bot 72:309–316. doi: 10.1139/b94-040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smithberg MH, Wesier CJ (1968) Patterns of variation among climatic races of red-osier dogwood. Ecology 49:495–505. doi: 10.2307/1934116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Svendsen E, Wilen R, Stevenson R, Liu R, Tanino K (2007) A molecular marker associated with low-temperature induction of dormancy in red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.). Tree Physiol 27:385–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tanino KK (2004) The role of hormones in endodormancy induction. In: Bud dormancy in woody plants. Crop Improv 10:157–199Google Scholar
  25. Weiser CJ (1970) Cold resistance and injury in woody plants. Science 169:1269–1278. doi: 10.1126/science.169.3952.1269 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Welling A, Moritz T, Palva ET, Junttila O (2002) Independent activation of cold acclimation by low temperature and short photoperiod in hybrid aspen. Plant Physiol 129:1633–1641. doi: 10.1104/pp.003814 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wheaton E (2001) Changing climates: exploring possible future climates of the Canadian Prairie provinces. Saskatchewan Research Council, SaskatoonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Anthony Kalcsits
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salim Silim
    • 2
  • Karen Tanino
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and BioresourcesUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Agroforestry DivisionAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations