Trees

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 37–49 | Cite as

Morphogenetic trends in the morphological, optical and biochemical features of phyllodes in Acacia mangium Willd (Mimosaceae)

  • Céline Leroy
  • Michael Guéroult
  • Novi Sari Wahyuni
  • Jacques Escoute
  • Régis Céréghino
  • Sylvie Sabatier
  • Daniel Auclair
Original Paper

Abstract

Endogenous variations in the annual growth of trees suggest that similar trends would occur in phyllodes. In comparison to leaves, the characteristics of phyllodes are less well known, hence this study examines the effects of architectural position and age of tree on the phyllodes of Acacia mangium. Phyllodes were investigated on 1-, 2-, and 3-year-old trees from three axis positions within the crown. We focused on the morphological, optical and biochemical traits of the phyllodes. The increase in phyllode area and lamina thickness is more pronounced in the older trees. Leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal density, nitrogen and chlorophyll content increase with tree age. The values of these characteristics decrease from the main stem to the lower branches for the older trees. Phyllode light absorptance increased with tree age whereas reflectance was higher for the upper position compared to the lower position within the crown. Carotenoid content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were higher for the younger phyllodes of younger trees. Increasing tree size induced modifications in the phyllode characteristics which are influenced by both morphogenetic and light gradients within the crown. This study demonstrated pronounced changes in terms of morphological and functional indicators of photosynthetic capacity in relation to phyllode position within the crown and to tree age. These morphogenetic effects on the phyllode characteristics should be taken into account in studies on phenotypic plasticity.

Keywords

Chlorophyll Phyllode morphology Phyllode anatomy Nitrogen Optical properties Plant architecture 

References

  1. Ackerly DD (1996) Canopy structure and dynamics: integration of growth processes in tropical pioneer trees. In: Mulkey SS, Chazdon RL, Smith AP (eds) Tropical forest plant ecophysiology. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 619–658Google Scholar
  2. Ashton PMS, Olander LP, Berlyn GP, Thadani R, Cameron IR (1998) Changes in leaf structure in relation to crown position and tree size of Betula papyrifera within fire-origin stands of interior cedar-hemlock. Can J Bot 76:1180–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltzer J, Thomas S (2005) Leaf optical responses to light and soil nutrient availability in temperate deciduous trees. Am J Bot 92:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barczi JF, Rey H, Caraglio Y, de Reffye P, Barthélémy D, Dong Q, Fourcaud T (2008) AMAPsim: an integrative whole-plant architecture simulator based on botanical knowledge. Ann Bot 101:1125–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barthélémy D, Caraglio Y (2007) Plant architecture: a dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Ann Bot 99:375–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bertamini M, Nedunchezhian N (2002) Leaf age effects on chlorophyll, rubisco, photosynthetic electron transport activities and thylakoid membrane in field grown grapevine leaves. J Plant Physiol 159:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blayo F, Demartines P (1991) Data analysis: how to compare Kohonen neural networks to other techniques? In: Prieto A (ed) Artificial neural networks. International Workshop IWANN’91. Springer, Berlin, pp 469–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brodribb T, Hill RS (1993) A physiological comparison of leaves and phyllodes in Acacia melanoxylon. Aust J Bot 41:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boughton VH (1990) Aspects of phyllode anatomy in some australian phyllodinous Acacias, with particular regard to stickiness. Aust J Bot 38:131–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cao KF (1999) Leaf anatomy and chlorophyll content of 12 woody species in contrasting light conditions in a Bornean heath forest. Can J Bot 78:1245–1253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Céréghino R, Santoul F, Compin A, Mastrorillo S (2005) Using self-organizing maps to investigate spatial patterns of non-native species. Biol Conserv 125:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choinski JS, Ralph P, Eamus D (2003) Changes in photosynthesis during leaf expansion in Corymbia gummifera. Aust J Bot 51:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dauzat J, Méthy M, Salager JL (1984) A method for simulating radiative transfers within canopies, subsequent absorbance and directional reflectance. Acta Oecol 5:403–413Google Scholar
  14. de Reffye P, Houllier F, Blaise P, Barthélemy D, Dauzat J, Auclair D (1995) A model simulating above- and belowground tree architecture with agroforestry applications. Agrofor Syst 30:175–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eamus D, Cole TG (1997) Diurnal and seasonal comparison of assimilation, phyllode conductance and water potential of three Acacia and one Eucalyptus species in the wet–dry tropics of Australia. Aust J Bot 45:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ellsworth DS, Reich PB (1993) Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest. Oecologia 96:169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Evans JR, Seemann JR (1989) The allocation of protein nitrogen in the photosynthetic apparatus: costs, consequences, and control. In: Briggs WR, Liss AR (eds) Photosynthesis, New York, pp 183–205Google Scholar
  18. Foyer CH (1993) La résistance des plantes à l’oxygène. La Recherche 24:270–276Google Scholar
  19. Frak E, Le Roux X, Millard P, Adam B, Dreyer E, Escuit C, Sinoquet H, Vandame M, Varlet-Grancher C (2002) Spatial distribution of leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity within the foliage of individual trees: disentangling the effects of local light quality, leaf irradiance, and transpiration. J Exp Bot 53:2207–2216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardner SK, Murphy DJ, Newbigin E, Drinnan AN, Ladiges PY (2005) An investigation of phyllode variation in Acacia verniciflua and A. leprosa (Mimosaceae), and implications for taxonomy. Aust Syst Bot 18:383–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garnier E, Salager J-L, Laurent G, Sonié L (1999) Relationships between photosynthesis, nitrogen and leaf structure in 14 grass species and their dependence of expansion. New Phytol 143:119–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giraudel JL, Lek S (2001) A comparison of self-organizing map algorithm and some conventional statistical methods for ecological community ordination. Ecol Model 146:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Givnish TJ (1984) Leaf and canopy adaptations in tropical forests. In: Medina E, Mooney HA, Vazquez Yanez C (eds) Physiological ecology of plants in the wet tropics. Tasks for vegetation science. Junk, The Hague, pp 51–84Google Scholar
  24. Givnish TJ (1988) Adaptation to sun and shade: a whole-plant perspective. Aust J Plant Physiol 15:63–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gutschick VP, Wiegel FW (1988) Optimizing the canopy photosynthetic rate by patterns of investment in specific leaf mass. Am Nat 132:67–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hansen DH (1996) Establishment and persistence characteristics in juvenile leaves and phyllodes of Acacia kao (leguminosae) in Hawaii. Int J Plant Sci 157:123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Heuret P, Meredieu C, Coudurier T, Courdier F, Barthélémy D (2006) Ontogenetic trends in the morphological features of main stem annual shoots of Pinus pinaster (Pinaceae). Am J Bot 93:1577–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ishida A, Uemura A, Koike N, Matsumoto Y, Hoe AL (1999) Interactive effects of leaf age and self-shading on leaf structure, photosynthetic capacity and chlorophyll fluorescence in the rain forest tree, Dryobalanops aromatica. Tree Physiol 19:741–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ishida A, Yazaki K, Hoe AL (2005) Ontogenetic transition of leaf physiology and anatomy from seedlings to mature trees of a rain forest pioneer tree, Macaranga gigantea. Tree Physiol 25:513–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jones CS (1999) An essay on juvenility, phase change, and heteroblasty in seed plants. Plant Sci 106:S105–S111Google Scholar
  31. Kikuzawa K (1995) Leaf phenology as an optimal strategy for carbon gain in plants. Can J Bot 73:158–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kitajima K, Mulkey SS, Wright IJ (1997) Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age in relation to leaf longevities for five tropical canopy tree species. Am J Bot 84:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kitajima K, Mulkey SS, Samaniego M, Wright IJ (2002) Decline of photosynthetic capacity with leaf age and position in two tropical pioneer tree species. Am J Bot 89:1925–1932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kock GW, Sillett SC, Jennings GM, Davis SD (2004) The limits to tree height. Nature 428:851–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kohonen T (1982) Analysis of a simple self-organizing process. Biol Cybern 44:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kohonen T (2001) Self-organizing maps: 3rd edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. Krause GH, Virgo A, Winter K (1995) Hight susceptibility to photoinhibition of young leaves of tropical forest trees. Planta 197:583–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Le Roux X, Sinoquet H, Vandam M (1999) Spatial distribution of leaf dry weight per area and leaf nitrogen concentration in relation to local radiation regime within an isolated tree crown. Tree Physiol 19:181–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Leal DB, Thomas SC (2003) Vertical gradients and tree-to-tree variation in shoot morphology and foliar nitrogen in an old-growth Pinus stobus stand. Can J Forest Res 33:1304–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee DW, Bone RA, Tarsis SL, Storch D (1990) Correlates of leaf optical properties in tropical forest sun and extreme-shade plants. Am J Bot 77:370–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lee DW, Oberbauer SF, Johnson P, Krishnapilay B, Mansor M, Mohamad H, Yap SK (2000) Effects of irradiance and spectral quality on leaf structure and function in seedlings of two Southeast Asian Hopea (Dipterocarpaceae) species. Am J Bot 87:447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Leroy C (2005) Rôle de l’architecture dans l’interception lumineuse des couronnes de Tectona grandis et Acacia mangium. Utilisation pour la simulation des bilans radiatifs dans les systèmes agroforestiers. Ph.D thesis, Université Montpellier IIGoogle Scholar
  43. Leroy C, Heuret P (2008) Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings. C. R. Biologies 331:127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mediavilla S, Escudero A (2003) Mature trees versus seedlings: differences in leaf traits and gas exchange patterns in three co-occurring Mediterranean oaks. Ann For Sci 60:455–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Niinemets U (1997) Distribution patterns of foliar carbon and nitrogen as affected by tree dimensions and relative light conditions in the canopy of Picea abies. Trees Struct Funct 11:144–154Google Scholar
  46. Niinemets U (1999) Components of leaf dry mass per area—thickness and density—alter leaf photosynthetic capacity in reverse directions in woody plants. New Phytol 144:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Niinemets U, Ellsworth D, Lukjanova A, Tobias M (2001) Site fertility and the morphological and photosynthetic acclimatisation of Pinus sylvestris needles to light. Tree Physiol 21:1231–1244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pinyopusarerk K, Liang SB, Gunn BV (1993) Taxonomy, distribution, biology, and use as an exotic. In: Awang K, Taylor D (eds) Acacia mangium, growing and utilisation. Winrock International and the food and agricultural organisation of the United Nations, Bangkok, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  49. Poethig RS (2003) Phase change and the regulation of developmental timing in plants. Science 301:334–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Poorter L, Oberbauer SF, Clark DB (1995) Leaf optical properties along a vertical gradient in a tropical rain forest canopy in Costa Rica. Am J Bot 82:1257–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Qi Y, Bai S, Heisler GM (2003) Changes in ultra-violet-B visible optical properties and absorbing pigment concentrations in pecan leaves during a growing season. Agr For Meteorol 120:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Richardson AD, Berlyn GP, Ashton PMS, Thadani R, Cameron IR (2000) Foliar plasticity of hybrid spruce in relation to crown position and stand age. Can J Bot 78:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Roggy JC, Nicolini E, Imbert P, Caraglio Y, Bosc A, Heuret P (2005) Links between tree structure and functional leaf traits in the tropical forest tree Dicorynia guianensis Amshoff (Caesalpiniaceae). Ann For Sci 62:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sims DA, Pearcy RW (1994) Scaling sun and shade photosynthetic acclimatation of Alocasia macrorrhiza to whole-plant performance. I: carbon balance and allocation at different daily photon flux densities. Plant Cell Environ 17:881–887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stenberg P, Smolander H, Sprugel DG, Smolander S (1998) Shoot structure, light interception, and distribution of nitrogen in an Abies amabilis canopy. Tree Physiol 18:759–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Sultan SE (2000) Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history. Trends Plant Sci 5:537–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Thomas S, Winner W (2002) Photosynthetic differences between saplings and adult trees: an integration of field results by meta-analysis. Tree Physiol 22:117–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Uemura A, Ishida A, Nakano T, Terashima I, Tanabe H, Matsumoto Y (2000) Acclimatation of leaf characteristics of Fagus species to previous-year and current-year solar irradiances. Tree Physiol 20:945–951PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Valladares F, Martinez-Ferri E, Balaguer L, Perez-Corona E, Manrique E (2000) Low leaf-level response to light and nutrients in Mediterranean evergreen oaks: a conservative resource-use strategy? New Phytol 148:79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vesanto J, Himberg J, Alhoniemi E, Parhankangas J (1999) Self-organizing maps in matlab: the som toolbox. In: Proceeding of the Matlab DSP Conference, Comsol Oy, Espoo, Finland, pp 35–40Google Scholar
  61. Wellburn A (1994) The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol 144:307–313Google Scholar
  62. Wright SD, McConnaughay KDM (2002) Interpreting phenotypic plasticity: the importance of ontogeny. Plant Species Biol 17:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yamashita N, Koike N, Ishida A (2002) Leaf ontogenetic dependence of light acclimation in invasive and native subtropical trees of different successional status. Plant. Cell Environ 25:1341–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yanez-Espinosa L, Terrazas T, Lopez-Mata L, Valdez-Hernandez JI (2003) Leaf trait variation in three species through canopy strata in a semi-evergreen Neotropical forest. Can J Bot 81:398–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yates DJ (1992) Short-term changes in spectral properties of phyllodes of brigalow (Acacia harpophylla F. Muell. ex Benth.) in response to wetting. Aust J Bot 40:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Young A (1991) The photoprotective role of carotenoids in higher plants. Physiol Plantarum 83:702–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yu H, Ong BL (2000) Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of phyllodes of Acacia mangium. Plant Sci 159:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Céline Leroy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Guéroult
    • 1
  • Novi Sari Wahyuni
    • 3
  • Jacques Escoute
    • 4
  • Régis Céréghino
    • 5
  • Sylvie Sabatier
    • 6
    • 7
  • Daniel Auclair
    • 1
  1. 1.INRA, UMR AMAPMontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Université Paul Sabatier, UMR EDBToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Universitas Brawijaya, Fakultas PertanianMalangIndonesia
  4. 4.CIRAD, UMR DAPMontpellierFrance
  5. 5.Université Paul Sabatier, UMR EcolabToulouseFrance
  6. 6.CIRAD, UMR AMAPMontpellierFrance
  7. 7.CIRAD, UMR AMAP (botAnique et bioinforMatique de l’Architecture des Plantes)Montpellier Cedex 5France

Personalised recommendations