Advertisement

Trees

, 22:531 | Cite as

Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric investigation of metabolites from the needles and roots of pine seedlings at early stages of pathogenic fungi Armillaria ostoyae attack

  • Valery A. IsidorovEmail author
  • Paweł Lech
  • Anna Żółciak
  • Magdalena Rusak
  • Lech Szczepaniak
Original Paper

Abstract

An investigation was carried out of the composition of metabolites in pine seedlings tissues at the initial stages of the infectious process caused by pathogenic fungi Armillaria ostoyae, which causes a root rot of trees and degradation of forest resources. With the help of successive extraction with organic solvents of different polarity, more than 190 metabolites were extracted from the needles and roots of the seedlings and then identified by GC–MS method. The composition of the extracts from control plants and those inoculated with Armillaria ostoyae were compared. It was established that part of secondary metabolites (glucosamines and free amino acids, carbohydrates raffinose and trehalose) were present only in the tissues of inoculated plants. Possible roles of some of these compounds appearing in the roots of seedlings infected with the fungus are also discussed in the paper.

Keywords

Armillaria root disease Scots pine seedlings Metabolites composition GC–MS analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by Committee for Scientific Investigation (KBN) of Poland, grant N 6 PO6L 028 21.

References

  1. Adams RP (1995) Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Allurd, Carol Stream, pp 362 Google Scholar
  2. Ayres MP, Lombardero MJ (2000) Assessing the consequence of global change for forest disturbance from herbivores and pathogens. Sci Total Environ 262:263–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey JA, Mansfield JW (1982) Phytoalexins. Blackie, GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowles DJ (1990) Defence-related proteins in higher plants. Annu Rev Biochem 59:873–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cairney J, Alexander I (1992) A study of ageing of spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] ectomycorrhizas. II. Carbohydrate allocation in ageing Picea sitchensis/Tylospora fibrillosa (Burt.) Donk ectomycorrhizas. New Phytol 122:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DeLong DL, Simard SW, Comeau PhG, Dykstra PR, Mitchell SJ (2005) Survival and growth response of seedlings in root disease infected partial cuts in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone of southeastern British Columbia. For Ecol Manage 206:365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Entry JA, Cromack K Jr, Hansen E, Waring R (1991) Responces of western coniferous seedlings to infection by Armillaria ostoyae under limited light and nitrogen. Phytopathology 81:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Entry JA, Martin NE, RG Kelsey, Cromack K Jr (1992) Chemical constituents in root bark of five species of western conifer saplings and infection by Armillaria ostoyae. Phytopathology 82:393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gajewski E, Dizdaroglu M, Simic MG (1982) Kovats′ indices of trimethylsilylated amino acids on fused-silica capillary columns. J Chromatogr 249:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goddijn OJM, van Dun K (1999) Trehalose metabolism in plants. Trends Plant Sci 4:315–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadacek F, Kraus GF (2002) Plant root carbohydrates affect growth behaviour of endophytic microfungi. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 41:161–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Harborne JB (1993) Introduction to ecological biochemistry. 4th edn. Academic Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Harborne JB (2000) Arsenal for survival: secondary plant products. Taxon 49:435–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harju AM, Venalainen M, Anttonen S, Vitanen H, Kainulainen F, Vapaavuori E (2003) Chemical factors affecting the brown-rot decay resistance of Scots pine heartwood. Trees 17:263–268Google Scholar
  15. Hope JL, Prazen BJ, Nilsson EJ, Lidstrom ME, Synovec RE (2005) Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection: analysis of amino acid and organic acid trimethylsilyl derivatives, with application to the analysis of metabolites in rye grass samples. Talanta 65:380–388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Klassen JK, Stein SE, Zenkevich IG (2000) Building a comprehensive, evaluated collection of GC retention indices from literature data. In: Proceedings of 23rd international symposium on capillary chromatography, Riva del Garda, Rep. A 17 (CD-ROM)Google Scholar
  17. Lefevere MF, Verhaeghe BJ, Declerck DH, Van Boxiaer JF, De Leenheer AP (1989) Metabolic profiling of urinary organic acids by single and multicolumn capillary gas chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 27:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee WJ, Hawkins RA, Peterson DR, Viña JR (1996) Role of oxoproline in the regulation of neural amino acid transport across the blood–brain barrier. J Biol Chem 271:19129–19133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mallett KI, Mayrand DG (1998) Armillaria root disease, stand characteristics, and soil properties in young lodgepole pine. For Ecol Manage 105:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mazella M, Croveling RK (1978) 5-Oxoprolinase (l-pyroglutamate hydrolase) in higher plants. Plant Physiol 62:798–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Molnár-Perl I (1999) Simultaneous quantitation of acids and sugars by chromatography: gas or high-performance liquid chromatography? J Chromatogr A 845:181–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Müller J, Boller Th, Wiemken A (1995) Trehalose and trehalase in plants: recent developments. Plant Sci 112:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Müller J, Wiemken A, Aeschbacher R (1999) Trehalose metabolism in sugar sensing and plant development. Plant Sci 147:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Myszewski JH, Fins L, Moore JA, Rust M, Mika PG (2002) Variation in the root bark phenolic/sugar ratio of Douglas-fir grown in two plantations in northern Idaho. Can J For Res 32:556–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niederer M, Pankow W, Wiemken A (1989) Trehalose synthesis in mycorrhizae of Norway spruce: an indicator of vitality. Eur J For Pathol 19:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Redfern DB (1973) Growth and behaviour of Armillaria mellea rhizomorphs in soil. Trans Br Mycol Soc 61:569–581Google Scholar
  27. Rishbeth J (1978) Effect of soil temperature and atmosphere on growth of Armillaria rhizomorphs. Trans Br Mycol Soc 70:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rishbeth J (1968) The growth rate of Armillaria mellea. Trans Brit Mycol Soc 51:575–586Google Scholar
  29. Rizzo DM, Blanchette RA, May G (1995) Distribution of Armillaria ostoyae genets in a Pinus resinosa–Pinus banksiana forest. Can J Bot 73:776–787Google Scholar
  30. Robinson RM, Sturrock RN, Davidson JJ, Ekramoddoullah AKM, Morrison DJ (2000) Detection of chitinase-like protein in the roots of Douglas-fir trees infected with Armillaria ostoyae and Phellinus weirii. Tree Physiol 20:493–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Robinson RM, Williams MR, Smith RH (2003) Incidence of Armillaria root disease in karri regrowth forest is underestimated by surveys of aboveground symptoms. Austral For 66:273–278Google Scholar
  32. Rykowski K (1975) Modalité d′infection des pins sylvestres par l′Armillaria mellea (Vahl.) Karst. Eur J For Pathol 5:65–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shaw CG III (1985) In vitro responses of different Armillaria taxa to gallic acid, tannic acid, and ethanol. Plant Pathol 34:594–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sinclair WA, Lyon HH, Johnson WT (1987) Diseases of trees and shrubs. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  35. Smith ML, Bruhn JN, Anderson JB (1994) Relatedness and spatial distribution of Armillaria genets infecting red pine seedlings. Phytopathology 84:822–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thomson AJ, Allen E, Morrison D (1998) Forest tree disease diagnosis over the world wide web. Comput Electr Agric 21:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tuchman M, Bowers LD, Fregein KD, Krivit PJ (1984) Capillary gas chromatographic separation of urinary organic acids. Retention indices of 101 urinary acids on a 5% phenylmethyl silicon capillary column. J Chromatogr Sci 22:189–202Google Scholar
  38. Vassiliou AG, Neumann GM, Condron R, Polya GM (1998) Purification and mass spectrometry-assisted sequencing of basic antifungal proteins from seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima). Plant Sci 134:141–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wargo PM (1981) In vitro response to gallic acid of aggressive and non-aggressive isolates of Armillaria mellea. Phytopathology 71:565–575Google Scholar
  40. Wargo PM (1996) Consequences of environmental stress on oak: predisposition to pathogens. Ann Sci For 53:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Weber P, Jäger M, Bangsow Th, Knell G, Piechaczek K, Koch J, Wolf S (1999) Kinetic parameters and tissue distribution of 5-oxo-l-prolinase determined by a fluorimetric assay. J Biochem Biophys Methods 38:71–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wingler A (2002) The function of trehalose biosynthesis in plants. Phytochemistry 60:437–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Woodwards S, Pearce RB (1988) The role of stilbenes in resistance of Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Bong. Carr. to entry of fungal pathogens. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33:127–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valery A. Isidorov
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paweł Lech
    • 2
  • Anna Żółciak
    • 2
  • Magdalena Rusak
    • 1
  • Lech Szczepaniak
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of ChemistryBiałystok UniversityBiałystokPoland
  2. 2.Department of Forest PhytopathologyForest Research InstituteRaszynPoland

Personalised recommendations