, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 457–464 | Cite as

Genetic variation and phylogeographic history of Picea likiangensis revealed by RAPD markers

  • Xiao-Li Peng
  • Chang-Ming Zhao
  • Gui-Li Wu
  • Jian-Quan LiuEmail author
Original Paper


Repeated cycles of retreat and recolonization during the Quaternary ice ages are thought to have greatly influenced current species distributions and their genetic diversity. It remains unclear how this climatic oscillation has affected the distribution of genetic diversity between populations of wind-pollinated conifers in the Qinghai-Tibetan region. In this study, we investigated the within-species genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Picea likiangensis, a dominant forest species in this region using polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Our results suggest that this species has high overall genetic diversity, with 85.42% of loci being polymorphic and an average expected heterozygosity (H E) of 0.239. However, there were relatively low levels of polymorphism at population levels and the differences between populations were not significant, with percentages of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 46.88 to 69.76%, Nei’s gene diversity (H E) from 0.179 to 0.289 and Shannon’s indices (Hpop) from 0.267 to 0.421. In accordance with our proposed hypothesis, a high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei’s genetic diversity (G ST = 0.256) and AMOVA analysis (Phi st = 0.236). Gene flow between populations was found to be limited (Nm = 1.4532) and far lower than reported for other conifer species with wide distribution ranges from other regions. No clusters corresponding to three morphological varieties found in the south, north and west, respectively, were detected in either UPGMA or PCO analyses. Our results suggest that this species may have had different refugia during the glacial stages in the southern region and that the northern variety may have multiple origins from these different refugia.


Picea likiangensis Genetic diversity RAPD Morphological differentiation 



Support for this research was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30430560), FANEDD 200327 and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Key Innovation Plan KSCX2-SW-106).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Li Peng
    • 1
  • Chang-Ming Zhao
    • 1
  • Gui-Li Wu
    • 1
  • Jian-Quan Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, School of Life SciencesLanzhou UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plateau Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology The Chinese Academy of SciencesXiningPeople’s Republic of China

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