, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 119–128 | Cite as

Growth and gas exchange responses of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and native South Florida species to salinity

  • Sharon M. L. Ewe
  • Leonel da Silveira Lobo Sternberg
Original Article


Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Schinus) is an invasive exotic species widely found in disturbed and native communities of Florida. This species has been shown to displace native species as well as alter community structure and function. The purpose of this study was to determine if the growth and gas exchange patterns of Schinus, under differing salinity conditions, were different from native species. Two native upland glycophytic species (Rapanea punctata and Randia aculeata) and two native mangrove species (Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) were compared with the exotic. Overall, the exotic’s morphologic changes and gas exchange patterns were most similar to R. mangle. Across treatments, increasing salinity decreased relative growth rate (RGR), leaf area ratio (LAR) and specific leaf area (SLA) but did not affect root/shoot ratios (R:S). Allocation patterns were however significantly different among species. The largest proportion of Schinus biomass was allocated to stems (47%), resulting in plants that were generally taller than the other species. Schinus also had the highest SLA and largest total leaf area of all species. This meant that the exotic, which was taller and had thinner leaves, was potentially able to maintain photosynthetic area comparable to native species. Schinus’ response patterns show that this exotic exhibits some physiological tolerance for saline conditions. Coupled with its biomass allocation patterns (more stem biomass and large area of thin leaves), the growth traits of this exotic potentially provide this species an advantage over native plants in terms of light acquisition in a brackish forested ecosystem.


Assimilation Stomatal conductance Intrinsic water-use efficiency Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency Carbon stable isotopes (δ13C) 



We thank Lee-Ann Hayek, Martin Buzas, the Wetland Ecosystem Ecology Laboratory at Florida International University and two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments on this manuscript. This research was in part supported by funding to Ewe from the Miami Horticultural Society, the University of Miami’s Biology Department (Curtis Award in Plant Biology) and the National Science Foundation through the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-term Ecological Research Program (DEB-9901514). This publication is contribution number 234 to Florida International University’s Southeast Environmental Research Center publication series and contribution number 654 to the Department of Biology, University of Miami’s Tropical Biology series.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon M. L. Ewe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Leonel da Silveira Lobo Sternberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  2. 2.Southeast Environmental Research CenterFlorida International UniversityMiamiUSA

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