, Volume 18, Issue 5, pp 529–546 | Cite as

Sap flow measurements with some thermodynamic methods, flow integration within trees and scaling up from sample trees to entire forest stands

Original Article


Sap flow measurement techniques and evaluation of data are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the trunk segment heat balance (THB) and heat field deformation (HFD) methods based on 30 years experience. Further elaboration of sap flow data is discussed in terms of integrating flow for whole stems from individual measuring points, considering variation of radial patterns in sapwood and variation around stems. Scaling up of data from sets of sample trees to entire forest stands based on widely available biometric data (partially on remote sensing images) is described and evaluated with a discussion of the magnitude of errors, the routine procedure applicable in any forest stand and practical examples.


Evaluation of methods Heat balance Heat field deformation Radial pattern of flow Flow visualization 



This study was done within the framework of WATERUSE project (EVK1-CT-2000-00079). The authors wish to express their very best thanks to Dr Johanna Pulli from Edinburgh University, UK for her language correction.


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© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Forest EcologyMendel University of Agriculture and ForestryBrnoCzech Republic
  2. 2.Environmental Measuring SystemsBrnoCzech Republic

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