, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 115–135 | Cite as

Progress in tissue culture, genetic transformation and applications of biotechnology to trees: an overview

  • C. C. Giri
  • B. Shyamkumar
  • C. Anjaneyulu


Trees are an integral part of human life, and a vital component of biodiversity. Forest trees in particular are renewable sources of food, fodder, fuel wood, timber and other valuable non-timber products. Due to the rapid growth of population and the human desire to progress, there has been a tremendous reduction in forest cover from the earth’s surface. To maintain and sustain forest vegetation, conventional approaches have been exploited in the past for propagation and improvement. However, such efforts are confronted with several inherent bottlenecks. Biotechnological interventions for in vitro regeneration, mass micropropagation and gene transfer methods in forest tree species have been practised with success, especially in the last decade. Against the background of the limitations of long juvenile phases and life span, development of plant regeneration protocols and genetic engineering of tree species are gaining importance. Genetic engineering assumes additional significance, because of the possibility of introducing a desired gene in a single step for precision breeding of forest trees. There are no comprehensive and detailed reviews available combining research developments with major emphases on tissue culture and basic genetic transformation in tree species. The present communication attempts to overview the progress in tissue culture, genetic transformation and biotechnological applications in the last decade and future implications.


Tissue culture Somatic embryogenesis Genetic transformation Trees Biotechnology 



The authors would like to acknowledge that the research for this publication was conducted as part of the programme Biotechnology for Dryland Agriculture in Andhra Pradesh with financial support of Ministry for Development Co-operation, The Netherlands.


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© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Plant Molecular Biology (CPMB), Department of GeneticsOsmania UniversityHyderabad-500007India

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