, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 244–250 | Cite as

Dendroecological investigations on Swietenia macrophylla King and Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae) in the central Amazon

  • Oliver DünischEmail author
  • Valdinez Ribeiro Montóia
  • Josef Bauch
Original Article


The width of the increment zones in the xylem of Swietenia macrophylla King and Cedrela odorata L. was investigated by dendroecological methods in a primary forest near Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10°09′S, 59°26′W). The annual period of cambial cell division and its intra-annual variation were determined by dendrometer measurements of 30 trees of each species. Tree-ring width chronologies for Swietenia and Cedrela were developed from cross-dated increment curves of 33 out of 47 Swietenia and 51 out of 64 Cedrela trees. Simple correlations were computed between the radial growth increment and monthly precipitation for the period 1890–2000. In Swietenia, cambium activity occurred throughout almost the whole year, but in Cedrela it was restricted to the rainy period from September of the previous year to June of the current year. Tree-rings were formed annually in the juvenile and adult wood of Cedrela, while in Swietenia the annual formation of tree-rings was restricted to the adult wood. Consequently the age of the Swietenia trees could be dated by the tree-rings in good approximation, while age dating of the Cedrela trees was exact. Correlation analyses revealed a significant relationship between the precipitation at the beginning and at the end of the growth season and the width of the increment zones in the adult xylem of Swietenia. In contrast, the width of the growth increment in the xylem of Cedrela was significantly correlated with the precipitation in March and May of the previous growth period.


Wood formation Cambial activity Increment zones Tree-ring analysis Dendroecology 



We thank the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) and the DLR, Bonn, Germany and the CNPq/IBAMA, Brasilia, Brazil for financial support within the German-Brazilian cooperation program SHIFT (Studies on Human Impacts on Forests and Floodplains in the Tropics). The comprehensive cooperation of Dr. L. Gasparotto, EMBRAPA, Manaus, is very much acknowledged. We thank the Municipio Aripuanã for providing the experimental trees and are also grateful to G.R. Montóia and I.R. Montóia for joining in the experiments. We wish to thank M. Müller, T. Schwarz and R. Rebello for technical assistance. The critical reading and improvement of the manuscript by Prof. R. Borchert is especially appreciated.


  1. Antonova GF, Stasova VV (1993) Effects of environmental factors on wood formation of Scots pine stems. Trees 7: 214–219Google Scholar
  2. Antonova GF, Stasova VV (1997) Effects of environmental factors on wood formation in larch (Larix sibirica Ldb.) stems. Trees 11:462–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnett JR (1992) Reactivation of the cambium in Aesculus hippocastanum L.: a transmission electron microscope study. Ann Bot 70:169–177Google Scholar
  4. Bauch J, Dünisch O (2000) Comparison of growth dynamics and wood characteristics of plantation-grown and primary forest Carapa guianensis Aubl. in Central Amazonia. IAWA J 21:321–333Google Scholar
  5. Bäucker E, Bues CT, Vogel M (1998) Radial growth dynamics of spruce (Picea abies) measured by micro-cores. IAWA J 19:301-309Google Scholar
  6. Berlage HP (1931) Over het verband tusschen de dikte der jaarringen van djatiboomen (Tectona grandis L.f.) en den regenval op Java. Tectona 24:939–953Google Scholar
  7. Borchert R (1999) Climatic periodicity, phenology, and cambium activity in tropical dry forest trees. IAWA J 20:239–247Google Scholar
  8. Borchert R, Rivera G, Hagnauer W (2002) Modification of vegetative phenology in a tropical semideciduous forest by abnormal drought and rain. Biotropica 34:381–393Google Scholar
  9. Breitspecher A., Bethel JS (1990) Stem-growth periodicity of trees in a tropical wet forest of Costa Rica. Ecology 71:1156-1164Google Scholar
  10. Briffa KR, Bartholin TS, Eckstein D, Jones PD, Karlén W, Schweingruber FH, Zetterberg P (1990) A 1400-year tree-ring record of summer temperatures in Fennoscandia. Nature 346:434–439Google Scholar
  11. Briffa KR, Jones PD, Schweingruber FH, Shiyatov SG, Cook ER (1995) Unusual twentieth-century summer warmth in a 1000-year temperature record from Siberia. Nature 376:156–159Google Scholar
  12. Brünig EF (1996) Conservation and management of tropical rainforests. An integrated approach to sustainability. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Calladao CH, da Silva Neto SJ, Scarano FR, Costa CG (2001) Periodicity of growth rings in some flood-prone trees of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Trees 15:492–497Google Scholar
  14. Catesson AM (1994) Cambial ultrastructure and biochemistry: changes in relation to vascular tissue differentiation and the seasonal cycle. Int J Plant Sci 155:251–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Coster C (1927) Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Zuwachszonen und Jahresringbildung in den Tropen I. Ann Jard Buitenzorg 37:49-161Google Scholar
  16. Coster C (1928) Zur Anatomie und Physiologie der Zuwachszonen und Jahresringbildung in den Tropen II. Ann Jard Buitenzorg 38:1-114Google Scholar
  17. Denne MP (1971) Temperature and tracheid development in Pinus sylvestris seedlings. J Exp Bot 22:362–370Google Scholar
  18. Denne MP, Dodd RS (1981) The environmental control of xylem differentiation. In: Barnett JR (ed) Xylem cell development. Castle House, Kent, pp 236–255Google Scholar
  19. Détienne P (1989) Appearance and periodicity of growth rings in some tropical woods. lAWA J 10:123-132Google Scholar
  20. Dünisch O, Puls J (2002) Photosynthesis and assimilate allocation of three plantation-grown Meliaceae of the Amazon. Tree Physiol 22 (in press)Google Scholar
  21. Dünisch O, Bauch J, Puls, Müller M (1996) Biological and chemical wood properties of long-term polluted spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) at high-altitude stands of the Erzgebirge. Holzforschung 50:497–506Google Scholar
  22. Dünisch O, Bauch J, Gasparotto L (2002a) Cambial growth dynamics and formation of increment zones in the xylem of Swietenia macrophylla King., Carapa guianensis Aubl., and Cedrela odorata L. (Meliaceae). IAWA J 23:101–119Google Scholar
  23. Dünisch O, Azevedo CP, Gasparotto L, Montóia GR, da Silva GJ, Schwarz T (2002b) Light, water, and nutrient demand for the growth of three high quality timber species (Meliaceae) of the Amazon. J Appl Bot 76:29–40Google Scholar
  24. FAO-UNESCO (1990) Soil map of the world, Revised Legend. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. Fritts HC (1976) Tree rings and climate. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Fujii T, Marsoem SN, Fujiwara T (1998) Annual growth rings in mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) growing in Java. IAWA J 19:449–450Google Scholar
  27. Göttsche-Kühn H (1988) Bildung und Eigenschaften des Holzes von Fichten (Picea abies [L.] Karst.] aus Waldschadensgebieten. Mitt Bundesforschanst Forst Holzwirtsch 157Google Scholar
  28. Günter S (2001) Ökologie und Verjüngung von Mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla King) in Naturwäldern Boliviens. Ph.D. thesis, University of Göttingen. Cuvillier, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  29. Höll W (1985) Seasonal fluctuation of reserve materials in the trunkwood of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). J Plant Physiol 117:355–362Google Scholar
  30. Hughes MK, Wu X, Shao X, Garfin GM (1994) A preliminary reconstruction of rainfall in north-central China since A.D. 1600 from tree ring density and width. Q Res 42:88–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kienast F, Schweingruber FH, Bräker OU, Schär E (1987) Tree-ring studies on conifers along ecological gradients and the potential of single-year analyses. Can J For Res 17:683–696Google Scholar
  32. Kozlowski T, Kramer PJ, Pallardy SG (1991) The physiological ecology of woody plants. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  33. Lisboa PLB, Prance GT, Lisboa RCL (1976) Contribuições ao projeto Aripuanã. Acta Amazonica 6 SupplGoogle Scholar
  34. Mariaux A (1967) Les cernes dans les bois tropicaux africains, nature et periodicité. Rev Bois For Trop 113:3–14Google Scholar
  35. Nepstad DC, Carvalho CR, Davidson EA, Jipp PH, Lefebvre PA, Negreiros GH, Trumbore SE, Vieira S (1994) The role of deep roots in the hydrological and carbon cycles of Amazonian forests and pastures. Nature 372:666–669Google Scholar
  36. Noldt G, Bauch J, Koch G, Schmitt U (2001) Fine roots of Carapa guianensis Aubl. and Swietenia macrophylla King: Cell structure and adaptation to the dry season in Central Amazonia. J Appl Bot 75:152–158 Google Scholar
  37. Pennington TD, Styles BT, Taylor DAH (1981) Flora Neotropica, Monograph 28. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Priya PB, Bhat KM (1999). Influence of rainfall, irrigation and age on the growth periodicity and wood structure in Teak (Tectona grandis). IAWA J 20:181–192Google Scholar
  39. Pumijumnong N, Eckstein D, Sass U (1995) Tree-ring research on Tectona grandis in Northern Thailand. lAWA J 16:385-392Google Scholar
  40. Sack M (1998) Charakterisierung der Holzbildung und des Zuwachses von Swietenia macrophylla King und Carapa guianensis Aubl. aus der Familie der Meliaceae unter Plantagenbedingungen in Zentralamazonien. Master thesis, Hamburg UniversityGoogle Scholar
  41. Sauter J (2000) Photosynthate allocation of the vascular cambium: facts and problems. In: Cell and molecular biology of wood formation. Savidge RA, Barnett JR, Napier R (eds) BIOS Scientific, Oxford, pp 71–84Google Scholar
  42. Savidge RA (2000) Intrinsic regulation of cambial growth. J Plant Growth Regul 20:52–77Google Scholar
  43. Schöngart J, Piedade MTF, Ludwigshausen S, Horna V, Worbes M (2002) Phenology and stem-growth periodicity of tree species in Amazonian floodplain forests. J Trop Ecol 18 (in press)Google Scholar
  44. Schweingruber FH (1988) Tree rings. Basics and applications of dendrochronology. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  45. Vysotskaya LG, Vaganov EA (1989) Components of the variability of radial cell size in conifers. IAWA Bull 10:417–427Google Scholar
  46. Worbes M (1988) Variety in structure of annual growth zones in Tabebuia barbata (E. Mey) Sandw., Bignoniaceae, a tropical tree species from Central Amazonian inundation forests. Dendrochronologia 6:71-89Google Scholar
  47. Worbes M (1989) Growth rings, increment and age of trees in inundation forests, savannas and a mountain forest in the Neotropics. IAWA J 10:109-122Google Scholar
  48. Worbes M (1997) The forest ecosystem of the floodplains. In: Junk WJ (ed) The Amazonian floodplains: ecology of a pulsing system. Ecological Studies 126. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 223–265Google Scholar
  49. Worbes M (1999) Annual growth rings, rainfall dependent growth and long-term growth patterns of tropical trees from the Forest Reserve Caparo in Venezuela. J Ecol 87:391–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yasue K, Funada R, Kobayashi O, Ohtani J (2000) The effects of tracheid dimensions on variations in maximum density of Picea glehnii and relationships to climatic factors. Trees 14:223–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver Dünisch
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Valdinez Ribeiro Montóia
    • 3
  • Josef Bauch
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Wood BiologyUniversity of Hamburg HamburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Soil ScienceFederal University of ParanaCuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.EMBRAPA Amazonia OcidentalRodovia AM 010 ManausBrazil

Personalised recommendations