Enamel hypoplasia of primary teeth in chronic renal failure
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Chronic renal failure (CRF) in the first years of life is associated with developmental defects of enamel in the permanent dentition. We investigated if CRF also affects the primary (deciduous) dentition. Thirty-one children with CRF on conservative treatment (n=12) or on renal replacement therapy (n=19) underwent dental inspection. In addition, 18 CRF children provided an exfoliated deciduous tooth for microscopic examination. Enamel defects were detected in a total of 12 children (31%), either clinically or microscopically. Of the 7 children affected clinically, 6 (19% of all examined) presented localized hypoplasia of the primary canines, which was found only in 3% of healthy control children: 1 patient had generalized pitted enamel hypoplasia. By microscopy, 5 of 10 primary canines examined showed enamel hypoplasia localized exclusively in enamel formed after birth. The ”birth line,” a visible structure within the primary enamel, was always present, which excludes a prenatal onset of the defects. Of the 12 patients with an enamel defect, 9 had a documented onset of CRF within the first 7 weeks of life. We conclude that renal disease leading to CRF may affect enamel formation of primary teeth in early postnatal life, resulting in lesions different from those observed in the secondary dentition.
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