We investigated the risk factors for relapse in 48 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome using univariate and multivariate proportional hazard analysis. All patients were treated with the same corticosteroid regimen. A low serum level of total protein and young age at onset increased the relapse rate. Recurrence risk was not associated with the patient’s sex, the percentage body weight gain, blood urea nitrogen level, serum level of creatinine, the hematocrit, or the administration of human albumin. We conclude that young age and a low serum level of total protein at onset were independent risk factors for relapse of childhood nephrotic syndrome.