Nephrocalcinosis in children: a retrospective survey
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We carried out a retrospective survey on 152 children and adolescents with nephrocalcinosis (NC) in 22 German centers of pediatric nephrology. Etiology, clinical manifestations, growth and development, sonographic appearance of NC and renal function were analyzed. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 3.3 (range 0.1–21) years and the median duration of follow-up was 4.1 years. In 34% of children NC was associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria (IHC) and in 32% with various hereditary tubular disorders. In 9% NC was observed subsequent to prophylactic bolus administration of vitamin D in infancy. A positive family history was found in 36%. Clinical manifestations were mainly failure to thrive during the 1st year of life (46%), psychomotor/mental retardation (28%) and urinary tract infection (34%). In 14% nephrolithiasis was associated. During the follow-up the proportion of patients with the most severe degree of NC (stages 2b or 3) increased from 40% to 55% and that of hypercalciuria decreased from 79% to 52%. Body height was <2 standard deviation scores (SDS) of normal in 41% at the time of diagnosis and in 32% at the last observation; the increase in relative height was significant only for IHC. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary concentration capacity changed only slightly with time. At the last investigation GFR was <50 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 6% and concentration capacity <800 mosmol/kg in 48% of patients. The degree of NC was negatively correlated with GFR and concentration capacity.
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