Clinical and radiological features in four adolescents with nutcracker syndrome
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We describe four adolescents with the nutcracker syndrome. In three patients, the nutcracker syndrome was detected through mass urinary screening; the other patient was diagnosed after a sudden onset of dark urine. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for diagnosis of the nutcracker syndrome, which revealed dilatation of the left renal vein ranging between 7.4 and 13 mm at the hilar portion. A renal biopsy, perfomed in three patients, showed no remarkable abnormalities in the glomerulus or tubulointerstitial tissue. The patients complained of physical discomfort, including headache, abdominal pain, fainting, and tachycardia mimicking clinical symptoms of an orthostatic disturbance. However, no chronic systemic diseases were detected in any of the patients after repeated laboratory examinations. An orthostatic disturbance preceded diagnosis in three patients. This report indicates that the nutcracker syndrome may cause serious physical ailments that clinically mimick an orthostatic disturbance. It may be important to identify the nutcracker syndrome among children who manifest non-specific physical complaints. MRA could be a safe and reliable method for diagnosing the nutcracker syndrome.
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