Patent ductus arteriosus is associated with acute kidney injury in the preterm infant
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is independently associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates ≤ 28 weeks gestation.
Preterm infants with echocardiographic diagnosis of moderate-large PDA at age ≤ 30 days were studied retrospectively. AKI, the primary outcome, was defined and staged according to serum creatinine using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) neonatal criteria. Its association with the timing and duration of PDA, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other nephrotoxic exposures, gestational age, and other covariates was evaluated using mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Acute Kidney Injury occurred in 49% (101/206) of infants. Moderate-to-large PDA was associated with any-stage AKI (OR 5.31, 95% CI 3.75 to 7.53), stage 1 (mild) AKI (OR 4.86, 95% CI 3.12 to 7.56), and stages 2–3 (severe) AKI (OR 10.9, 95% CI 5.70 to 20.8). NSAID treatment added additional risk for mild AKI (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.71). Severe AKI was less likely when NSAID treatment was effective (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.97) but not when ineffective (OR 1.63, 95% CI 0.76 to 3.50).
Moderate-to-large PDA was strongly associated with all stages of AKI in preterm infants ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age. Effective NSAID treatment decreased the risk of severe but not mild AKI. These differential effects reflect the balance between the renal benefits of PDA closure and the risk of NSAID toxicity.
KeywordsPatent ductus arteriosus Acute kidney injury Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Patent ductus arteriosus
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Acute kidney injury
Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes
We wish to thank New York Presbyterian Hospital for supporting fellows’ education and research.
Compliance with ethical standards
The hospital institutional review board approved the study protocol and waived the need for consent.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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