Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 33, Issue 11, pp 2185–2191 | Cite as

Utilization of the renal angina index in PICU of a developing country for prediction of subsequent severe acute kidney injury

  • Raina Kaur
  • Gurdeep Singh DhooriaEmail author
  • Puneet A. Pooni
  • Deepak Bhat
  • Siddharth Bhargava
  • Shruti Kakkar
  • Kamal Arora
  • Namita Bansal
Original Article



Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with worsened morbidity and increased mortality in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). AKI risk score, termed renal angina index (RAI) is used in developed countries to predict subsequent severe AKI. Very few studies have investigated application of RAI in the PICU of a developing country. This prospective observational study aimed to predict severe subsequent AKI in children admitted to PICU using RAI.


Over 1 year, children admitted to PICU aged 1 month–18 years old, with no previous kidney disease, were included. RAI was assessed from 8 to 12 h of PICU admission (day 0). RAI was calculated from product of the renal risk and renal injury score. Renal angina positivity was defined as RAI ≥ 8. On day 3, serum creatinine was estimated and estimated glomerular filtrration rate (eGFR) calculated. RAI was correlated with presence/absence of subsequent (day 3) severe AKI. RAI positivity was also correlated with duration of PICU stay, need for dialysis, mechanical ventilation, and mortality.


RAI positivity was seen in 16.7% cases, of which 36.2% developed AKI at 4 days vs. 2.3% in RAI-negative cases (p < 0.001). Mean duration of PICU stay in the RAI-positive group was 7.19 ± 5.13 days vs. 4.72 ± 2.71 days in the RAI-negative group (p < 0.001). Mortality was seen in 31.9% of RAI-positive cases vs. 2% in RAI-negative cases (p < 0.001).


RAI could be used as a simple and important bedside tool to predict patients at risk of severe AKI.


Acute kidney injury Children Critical care Risk stratification Renal angina index 


Compliance with ethical standards

The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee. Written consent was obtained from the attendants of the children.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© IPNA 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raina Kaur
    • 1
  • Gurdeep Singh Dhooria
    • 1
    Email author
  • Puneet A. Pooni
    • 1
  • Deepak Bhat
    • 1
  • Siddharth Bhargava
    • 1
  • Shruti Kakkar
    • 1
  • Kamal Arora
    • 1
  • Namita Bansal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Research and Development CentreDayanand Medical College and HospitalLudhianaIndia

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