Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and medullary nephrocalcinosis in children with ADCK4 mutations
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Mutations in the AarF domain containing kinase 4 gene (ADCK4), one of the novel genes causing steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), usually manifest as isolated adolescent-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). ADCK4 interacts with components of the coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis pathway.
The incidence and phenotypes of patients with ADCK4 mutations were investigated in a cohort of Korean pediatric patients with SRNS.
Among the 53 patients enrolled in the study the incidence of ADCK4-associated FSGS was 7.5% (n = 4) in children aged 5 years and older with multidrug-resistant FSGS. Two additional patients were included for phenotype analyses, one detected by family screening and the other with cyclosporine-responsive FSGS. These six patients presented proteinuria without overt nephrotic syndrome at a median age of 110 (range 60–153) months, of whom five progressed to end-stage renal disease within a median period of 46 (range 36–79) months after onset. Renal biopsies revealed mitochondrial abnormalities in podocytes and tubular cells of all patients. Notably, all patients showed accompanying medullary nephrocalcinosis. None of the patients showed other extrarenal manifestations.
ADCK4 mutations should be considered in older children presenting with steroid resistant FSGS. An early diagnosis of ADCK4 mutations is essential because the condition is treatable with CoQ10 supplementation at an early stage. The association with medullary nephrocalcinosis may be an additional diagnostic indicator.
KeywordsADCK4 mutation Coenzyme Q10 deficiency Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis Medullary nephrocalcinosis Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome
This study was supported by a grant (HI12C0014) from the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Seoul National University Hospital. Before the study, informed consent was obtained from all patients or their parents.
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