Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 32, Issue 3, pp 503–509 | Cite as

Hypogammaglobulinemia in infants receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis

  • Shwetal Lalan
  • Hongying Dai
  • Bradley A. Warady
Original Article



Peritonitis is a severe complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in infants. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between hypogammaglobulinemia and peritonitis risk, and the potential benefit of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) therapy in infants receiving CPD.


Patients aged 0–12 months at initiation of CPD between 1985 and 2012 were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study. Data collected from the start of CPD up to 2 years post-dialysis initiation included patient demographics, dialysis characteristics, serum immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, IVIG administration history, infectious complications and outcomes. Cox regression analysis and linear mixed model analysis were used for statistical analysis.


Twenty-six consecutive patients were included in the study. Annualized peritonitis rates for infants aged 0–30 days (≤1-month age group; n = 16; 320.3 patient-months) and 31–365 days (>1–12-month age group; n = 10; 163.3 patient-months) at dialysis initiation were 0.27 (1 episode per 45.8 patient-months) and 0.15 (one episode per 81.7 patient-months), respectively. Seventy-six percent of the serum IgG levels were >1 standard deviation below the age-appropriate mean levels, and these did not differ in those who developed peritonitis versus those who did not (p = 0.39). Serum IgG levels were significantly lower in patients on CPD with oligoanuria than in non-oliguric patients (p = 0.04) and in patients on CPD for >90 days as compared to those who had received CPD for <90 days (p = 0.018). IVIG therapy was provided to 20 patients with hypogammaglobulinemia; this high prevalence of IVIG usage precluded any drawing of conclusion on the potential role of IVIG in the prevention of peritonitis.


Hypogammaglobulinemia is a frequent complication of CPD during infancy. In our experience, it was not associated with an increased risk for peritonitis.


Infant dialysis Peritoneal dialysis Immunoglobulin Neonates Hypogammaglobulinemia  


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest to report.

Grants and financial support

None to disclose.


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Copyright information

© IPNA 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shwetal Lalan
    • 1
  • Hongying Dai
    • 2
  • Bradley A. Warady
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Children’s Mercy HospitalUniversity of Missouri–Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA
  2. 2.Health Services and Outcomes Research, Children’s Mercy HospitalUniversity of Missouri-Kansas City School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

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