Perceived appetite and clinical outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease
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Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have impaired caloric intake through a variety of mechanisms, with decreased appetite as a putative contributor. In adult CKD, decreased appetite has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. There is limited information about this relationship in pediatric CKD.
A total of 879 participants of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study were studied. Self-reported appetite was assessed annually and categorized as very good, good, fair, or poor/very poor. The relationship between appetite and iohexol or estimated glomerular filtration rate (ieGFR), annual changes in anthropometrics z-scores, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, and quality of life were assessed.
An ieGFR < 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a 4.46 greater odds (95 % confidence interval: 2.80, 7.09) of having a worse appetite than those with ieGFR >90. Appetite did not predict changes in height, weight, or BMI z-scores. Patients not reporting a very good appetite had more hospitalizations over the next year than those with a very good appetite. Worse appetite was significantly associated with lower parental and patient reported quality of life.
Self-reported appetite in children with CKD worsens with lower ieGFR and is correlated with clinical outcomes, including hospitalizations and quality of life.
KeywordsNutrition Pediatric ER visits Quality of life Hospitalization Renal function
Data in this manuscript were collected by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children prospective cohort study (CKiD) with clinical coordinating centers (Principal Investigators) at Children's Mercy Hospital and the University of Missouri - Kansas City (Bradley Warady, MD) and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Susan Furth, MD, PhD), Central Biochemistry Laboratory (George Schwartz, MD) at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and data coordinating center (Alvaro Muñoz, PhD) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The CKiD Study is supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, with additional funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U01-DK-66143, U01-DK-66174, U01DK-082194, U01-DK-66116). The CKiD website is located at http://www.statepi.jhsph.edu/ckid. Research at Emory University supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number UL1TR000454. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study design and conduct were approved by an external study monitoring board appointed by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and by the institutional review boards of each participating center.
Conflict of interest
The authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
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