Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 31, Issue 7, pp 1129–1136 | Cite as

Effect of elevated blood pressure on quality of life in children with chronic kidney disease

  • Cynthia WongEmail author
  • Arlene Gerson
  • Stephen R. Hooper
  • Matthew Matheson
  • Marc Lande
  • Juan Kupferman
  • Susan Furth
  • Bradley Warady
  • Joseph Flynn
  • For the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study
Original Article



Although hypertension is known to have an adverse impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults, little is known about the effects of hypertension and use of antihypertensive medications on HRQoL in hypertensive children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).


Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessment of impact of elevated blood pressure (BP) and antihypertensive medication use on HRQoL scores obtained in children enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study. Blood pressure was measured both manually and by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. HRQoL was assessed with the PedsQL survey.


The study sample included 551 participants with sufficient data for cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Cross-sectional analysis of presence of prehypertension or hypertension and impact on HRQoL found mild associations between elevated BP and HRQoL scores with overall PedsQL parent and child scores averaging 79 vs. 76.5 and 83 vs. 78.5, respectively. However, no associations persisted under longitudinal multivariate analysis.


Despite apparent small effects of elevated BP on HRQoL at baseline, no association was found between the presence of elevated BP and HRQoL over time in children with mild-to-moderate CKD. In addition, antihypertensive medication use did not appear to have an impact on HRQoL in this population.


Hypertension Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) PedsQL Pediatrics Antihypertensive medications 



Data in this manuscript were collected by the Chronic Kidney Disease in children prospective cohort study (CKiD) with clinical coordinating centers (Principal Investigators) at Children’s Mercy Hospital and the University of Missouri – Kansas City (Bradley Warady, M.D.) and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Susan Furth, M.D., Ph.D.), Central Biochemistry Laboratory (George Schwartz, M.D.) at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and Data Coordinating Center (Alvaro Muñoz, Ph.D.) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. The CKiD Study is supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, with additional funding from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U01-DK-66143, U01-DK-66174, U01DK-082194, U01-DK-66116). The CKID website is located at

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics statement

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at all participating centers; informed consent and/or assent was obtained according to local requirements prior to inclusion in study.


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Copyright information

© IPNA 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Wong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arlene Gerson
    • 2
  • Stephen R. Hooper
    • 3
  • Matthew Matheson
    • 4
  • Marc Lande
    • 5
  • Juan Kupferman
    • 6
  • Susan Furth
    • 7
  • Bradley Warady
    • 8
  • Joseph Flynn
    • 9
  • For the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study
  1. 1.Division of Pediatric NephrologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Allied Health SciencesUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  5. 5.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  6. 6.Division of Pediatric Nephrology and HypertensionMaimonides Medical CenterBrooklynUSA
  7. 7.Division of NephrologyChildren’s Hospital of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphiaUSA
  8. 8.Division of NephrologyChildren’s Mercy HospitalKansas CityUSA
  9. 9.Division of NephrologySeattle Children’s HospitalSeattleUSA

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