Peritoneal–pericardial communication in an adolescent on peritoneal dialysis
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Dialysate leakage into the pericardium is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). There has been one reported pediatric case of spontaneous peritoneo-pericardial fistula in a 2-year-old boy with tissue fragility due to malnutrition and two reported adult cases in PD patients with a history of previous cardiac surgery and/or pericardiocentesis.
We describe a 15-year-old girl with end-stage renal disease secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, with recurrent pericardial effusions secondary to a peritoneo-pericardial fistula while on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). She had previously presented with chylous pericardial effusion that required pericardiocentesis and subsequently developed recurrent pericardial effusions when she was commenced on CCPD 9 months later. Pericardial fluid chemistry revealed a sterile, serous fluid containing 15.1 mmol/L of glucose and <0.11 mmol/L of triglycerides. Peritoneal scintigraphy with Tc-99m labeled sulfur colloid injected intra-peritoneally confirmed the presence of a peritoneo-pericardial fistula. The pericardial effusions resolved upon switching the patient to hemodialysis (HD).
Our case of recurrent pericardial effusions in a child on PD secondary to a peritoneo-pericardial fistula highlights the need for close follow-up in patients with a history of previous pericardiocentesis who are commenced on PD.
KeywordsDialysate leakage Pericardial effusions Peritoneal fluid scintigraphy Vasculitis
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This work received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
All authors contributed to case management and writing.
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