Rare variants in tenascin genes in a cohort of children with primary vesicoureteric reflux
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Primary vesicoureteral reflux (PVUR) is the most common malformation of the kidney and urinary tract, and reflux nephropathy is a major cause of chronic kidney disease in children. Recently, we reported mutations in the tenascin XB gene (TNXB) as a cause of PVUR with joint hypermobility.
To define the role of rare variants in tenascin genes in the etiology of PVUR, we screened a cohort of patients with familial PVUR (FPVUR) and non-familial PVUR (NFPVUR) for rare missense variants inTNXB and the tenascin C gene (TNC) after excluding mutations in ROBO2 and SOX17.
The screening procedure identified 134 individuals from 112 families with PVUR; two families with mutations in ROBO2 were excluded from further analysis. Rare missense variants in TNXB were found in the remaining 110 families, of which 5/55 (9 %) families had FPVUR and 2/55 (4 %) had NFPVUR. There were no differences in high-grade reflux or renal parenchymal scarring between patients with and without TNXB variants. All patients with TNXB rare variants who were tested exhibited joint hypermobility. Overall we were able to identify causes of FPVUR in 7/57 (12 %) families (9 % in TNXB and 3 % in ROBO2).
In conclusion, the identification of a rare missense variant in TNXB in combination with a positive family history of VUR and joint hypermobility may represent a non-invasive method to diagnose PVUR and warrants further evaluation in other cohorts.
KeywordsVesicoureteral reflux Tenascin genes Joint hypermobility Urinary tract infection Reflux nephropathy
This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) grant R21DK096200 and the Bayden Collins Pediatric Kidney Disease Research Fund, Duke University Medical Center. RG is the recipient of the Doris Duke Clinical Research Mentorship grant. We would like to thank the personnel of the genomic core of the Duke Molecular Physiology Institute (DMPI) and most importantly the participants in the study.
Conflict of interest
All the authors declared no competing interests.
Institutional review board approval was obtained from Duke University Medical Center (Durham, NC). We obtained informed consent from parents and assent from children participating in the study.
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