Losartan and enalapril are comparable in reducing proteinuria in children with Alport syndrome
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A previous subgroup analysis of a 12-week, double-blind study demonstrated that losartan significantly lowered proteinuria versus placebo and amlodipine and was well tolerated in children (1–17 years old) with proteinuria secondary to Alport syndrome. The present subgroup analysis of the open-label, extension phase of this study assessed the long-term efficacy and tolerability of losartan versus enalapril.
Patients who had completed the double-blind study were re-randomized to losartan or enalapril and followed for proteinuria and renal function for up to 3 years.
Twenty-seven patients with Alport syndrome were randomized to losartan (0.44-2.23 mg/kg/day; n = 15) or enalapril (0.07-0.72 mg/kg/day; n = 12). The least-squares (LS) mean percent change from week 12 in urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPr/Cr was +1.1 % in the losartan group versus a further 13.9 % reduction in the enalapril group (GMR [95 % CI] = 1.2 [0.7, 2.0]); the LS mean change from week 12 in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was −6.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 in the losartan group versus −9.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 in the enalapril group. The adverse event incidence was low and comparable in both treatment groups.
In children with proteinuria secondary to Alport syndrome, losartan maintained proteinuria reduction, and enalapril produced a further proteinuria reduction over the 3-year study period. Both agents were generally well tolerated.
KeywordsAlport syndrome Children Chronic kidney disease Clinical trial Enalapril Glomerular filtration rate Losartan Pediatric Proteinuria
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