Chronic kidney disease associated with perinatal HIV infection in children and adolescents
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This study describes the incidence, clinical and demographic characteristics, and spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in youths with perinatal HIV-1 infection.
Retrospective analysis between May 1993 and December 2006 of subjects with renal disease followed in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219/219C multicenter study examining the long-term consequences of perinatal HIV infection. Diagnosis confirmation was made utilizing a questionnaire mailed to research sites. Participants with CKD of other etiology than HIV were excluded. Outcome measures were biopsy-diagnosed CKD and, in the absence of biopsy, HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) using established clinical criteria.
Questionnaires on 191 out of 2,102 participants identified 27 cases of CKD: 14 biopsy-diagnosed and 6 clinical cases of HIVAN, and 7 biopsy-diagnosed cases of immune complex-mediated kidney disease (lupus-like nephritis, 3; IgA nephropathy, 2; membranous nephropathy, 2). Incidence rates for CKD associated with HIV in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1993–1997) and HAART (1998–2002, 2003–2006) eras were 0.43, 2.84, and 2.79 events per 1,000 person years respectively. In multivariate analysis, black race and viral load ≥100,000 copies/mL (rate ratios 3.28 and 5.05, p ≤ 0.02) were associated with CKD.
A variety of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritides and HIVAN occurs in this population. Black race and uncontrolled viral replication are risk factors for CKD associated with HIV.