Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 27, Issue 9, pp 1427–1439 | Cite as

Nutrition in infants and very young children with chronic kidney disease

  • Bethany J. Foster
  • Lynn McCauley
  • Robert H. Mak
Review

Abstract

Provision of adequate nutrition is a cornerstone of the management of infants and very young children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Very young children with CKD frequently have poor spontaneous nutritional intake. Because growth depends strongly on nutrition during early childhood, growth in very young children with CKD is often suboptimal. In this review we will consider the mechanisms and manifestations of inadequate nutritional status in very young children with CKD, mechanisms mediating inadequate nutritional intake, and the optimal nutritional management of this special population. In addition, we suggest an approach to the assessment of nutritional status, including the use of body mass index in infants. Five major nutritional components are considered: energy, macronutrients, fluids and electrolytes, micronutrients, and calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D. The use of adjunctive therapies, including appetite stimulants, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric dysmotility, enhanced dialytic clearance, and growth hormone, is also briefly discussed.

Keywords

Malnutrition Pediatric Nutritional assessment Renal failure Infancy Growth failure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

BJF is supported by the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec. RHM is supported by the National Institute of Health U01 DK-3-012 grant.

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© IPNA 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bethany J. Foster
    • 1
  • Lynn McCauley
    • 2
  • Robert H. Mak
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of PediatricsMontreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University Health CentreMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Clinical NutritionMontreal Children’s Hospital, McGill University Health CentreMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Division of Nephrology, Department of PediatricsRady Children’s Hospital, University of California San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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