Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 2469–2475 | Cite as

Pediatric urinary tract infections: an analysis of hospitalizations, charges, and costs in the USA

  • John David Spencer
  • Andrew Schwaderer
  • Kirk McHugh
  • David S. Hains
Original Article


This study evaluates the impact of pediatric uninary tract infection (UTI)s on the economy and inpatient healthcare utilization in the USA. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and hospital economics was performed on children less than 18 years of age admitted with a UTI between 2000 and 2006 using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database. Our results were stratified as follows. Hospital admissions—nearly 50,000 children/year were admitted with a UTI. Pediatric UTIs represented 1.8% of all pediatric hospitalizations. Seventy-three percent of patients were female and 40% were under 1 year of age. Payer information—from 2000 to 2006, pediatric insurance coverage shifted from the private sector to the public sector. Hospital cost—in 2000, estimated hospital costs for UTIs were $2,858 per hospitalization and rose to $3,838 by 2006. Mean hospital charges increased from $6,279 to $10,489 per stay. By 2006, aggregate hospital charges exceeded $520 million. Our results indicate that UTIs are among the most common pediatric admission diagnoses. Hospitalization is more common in females and younger children. Since 2000, hospital charges for UTIs increased disproportionately to hospital costs. Over time, more children hospitalized with a UTI depend on public agencies to cover healthcare expense. More efforts are needed to evaluate cost-effective strategies for evaluation and treatment of UTIs.


Urinary tract infection Pediatrics Epidemiology Economics Utilization review 


Financial disclosure and conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest or financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.


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Copyright information

© IPNA 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • John David Spencer
    • 1
  • Andrew Schwaderer
    • 1
  • Kirk McHugh
    • 2
  • David S. Hains
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Research Institute at the Nationwide Children’s HospitalOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  2. 2.Center for Molecular and Human Genetics, Research Institute at the Nationwide Children’s HospitalOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA
  3. 3.Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Research Institute at the Nationwide Children’s HospitalOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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