Cardiorespiratory fitness is a marker of cardiovascular health in renal transplanted children
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Children with renal transplants (TX) are at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Study objectives were to assess the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR fitness) and daily physical activity (PA) in renal TX children and adolescents in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory testing included assessment of CR fitness by treadmill exercise testing (VO2peak), 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure (ABPM) measurement, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometrics and measurement of lipid levels. PA was self-reported by questionnaire. Twenty-two TX patients with a median (range) age 14.5 (9–18) years were tested. Median V02peak was 66% (36–97) of the expected values compared with controls. Nineteen (86%) children reported <60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sixteen (73%) were hypertensive and 8 (34%) were overweight or obese. Four children fulfilled the criteria for a metabolic syndrome. Children with at least 2 of the 3 metabolic risk factors (hypertension, overweight, and glucose intolerance, n = 7) achieved significantly lower VO2peak compared with those with one or none of these factors (median V02peak 45% and 73% of the expected values respectively, p = 0.003). Renal TX children and adolescents have severely impaired CR fitness and PA. Reduced CR fitness was associated with the clustering of CV risk factors. Routine counseling for increased PA is strongly recommended.
KeywordsPhysical activity Renal transplantation Cardiovascular risk factors Children Metabolic syndrome
The authors gratefully acknowledge patients and parents for their participation, and Mai Britt Lynum for coordinating services. The study was supported by grants from The Red Cross Organization, Oslo, Norway.
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