Determinants of the intima–media thickness in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease
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The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the arterial wall in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We studied 60 patients: 32 with stages 2–4 CKD [chronic renal failure (CRF)], 28 with stage 5 CKD [end-stage renal disease (ESRD)], and 43 controls (C). The evaluated parameters included intima–media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries, bone mineral density (BMD), serum lipid levels, and parameters of the calcium–phosphorus metabolism. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 with normal arteries, and group 2 with arterial changes. The highest serum fetuin A level was found in group 1 compared with groups 2 and C. A negative correlation between IMT and fetuin A level was found. In patients with ESRD, a positive correlation of IMT with phosphorus level and age and a negative correlation with cyclase-activating parathyroid hormone and cyclase inhibiting parathyroid hormone (CAP/CIP) ratio was observed. Multiple linear regression showed that lower fetuin-A and alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels and higher lumbar spine BMD independently predicted higher IMT. Arterial wall changes in children with CKD were related to lower fetuin A and AP level and higher BMD. Low CAP/CIP and high phosphorus level may also be significant factors for arterial changes in patients with ESRD.