NGAL is an early predictive biomarker of contrast-induced nephropathy in children
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We hypothesized that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early predictive biomarker of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We prospectively enrolled 91 children (age 0–18 years) with congenital heart disease undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and angiography with contrast administration (CC; Ioversol). Serial urine and plasma samples were analyzed in a double-blind fashion by NGAL enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CIN, defined as a 50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline, was found in 11 subjects (12%), but detection using increase in serum creatinine was only possible 6–24 h after CC. In contrast, significant elevation of NGAL concentrations in urine (135 ± 32 vs. 11.6 ± 2 ng/ml without CIN, p < 0.001) and plasma (151 ± 34 vs. 36 ± 4 without CIN, p < 0.001) were noted within 2 h after CC in those subjects. Using a cutoff value of 100 ng/ml, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve for prediction of CIN were excellent for the 2-h urine NGAL (73%, 100%, and 0.92, respectively) and 2-h plasma NGAL (73%, 100%, and 0.91, respectively). By multivariate analysis, the 2-h NGAL concentrations in the urine (R2 = 0.52, p < 0.0001) and plasma (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.0001) were found to be powerful independent predictors of CIN. Patient demographics and contrast volume were not predictive of CIN.
KeywordsAcute renal failure Acute kidney injury Biomarkers Lipocalin Contrast agents
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