Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome: long-term evolution after sequential therapy
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We present a retrospective study of 30 children of mean age 3.02 ± 1.81 years with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) treated with intravenous injection of methylprednisolone plus orally administered prednisone; 24 children also received cyclophosphamide (CP). Sixteen were resistant to steroids from the beginning, and 14 after a mean of 11.26 ± 16.61 months. The initial histological diagnosis was: 18 minimal change disease (MCD), 11 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and one diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (DMPG). Total remission was achieved in 22 patients (73.3%), partial response in three (10%) and no response in five (16.6%), two of whom were brothers carrying an NPHS2 gene double mutation. There was no difference in response between the MCD and FSGS patients; the only patient with DMPG did not respond. Only initial resistance was a sign of bad prognosis. At follow-up (6.4 ± 3.6 years from last pulse), 21/22 were still in remission, 14/21 were without treatment. Six patients required cyclosporine or mycophenolate mofetil because of steroid dependence. Two non-responders developed end-stage renal failure (ESRF); the remaining patients maintained normal glomerular filtration. The treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, most of the patients treated with sequential therapy consisting of methylprednisolone (MP) (100%) and CP (80%) showed remission and preserved renal function, but 20% developed steroid dependence.
KeywordsSteroid-resistant nephritic syndrome Pulses Methylprednisolone Cyclosporine Tacrolimus Mycophenolate mofetil Children
We would like to give special thanks to Elia Pérez Fernández from the Statistics Department of La Paz Hospital for her help with the statistical analysis of the data.
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