Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp 805–809 | Cite as

The management of anemia in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients

Guidelines by an ad hoc European committee
  • Cornelis H. Schröder
  • The European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group
Open Access
Original Article


Anemia is common in chronic renal failure. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of anemia in adult patients are available. With respect to the diagnosis and treatment in children on peritoneal dialysis, the European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group (EPPWG) has produced guidelines. After a thorough diagnostic work-up, treatment should aim for a target hemoglobin concentration of at least 11 g/l. This can be accomplished by the administration of erythropoietin and iron preparations. Although there is sufficient evidence to advocate the intraperitoneal administration of erythropoietin, most pediatric nephrologists still apply erythropoietin by the subcutaneous route. Iron should preferably be prescribed as an oral preparation. Sufficient attention has to be paid to the nutritional intake in these children. There is no place for carnitine supplementation in the treatment of anemia in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients.


Peritoneal dialysis Children Erythropoietin Iron Carnitine 

The treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease has been summarized in the NKF/DOQI guidelines [1], which have recently been updated [2]. European best practice guidelines have also been recently published [3]. These published guidelines pay no, or very limited, attention to the special situation in children.

The European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group (EPPWG) was established in 1999 by pediatric nephrologists with a major interest in peritoneal dialysis and has, among other things, published guidelines on commencing elective chronic peritoneal dialysis [4]. One of the functions of the group is to establish expert guidance in important clinical areas associated with peritoneal dialysis in conjunction with other members of the multidisciplinary team. These guidelines were initiated and discussed at meetings of the group and developed by e-mail discussion to develop a consensus of opinion based upon cumulative clinical experience and reported studies. The present guidelines apply to the management of anemia in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients.

Definition of anemia

More than in adult patients, hemoglobin and hematocrit values are age dependent in children [5], (Tables 1, 2, 3, 4). Also, concentrations of ferritin, transferrin, and iron are dependent on age. Early iron deficiency may be diagnosed by an increase in hypochromic red blood cells [6]. The technique for measuring this parameter is not available everywhere. Since children with renal failure generally do not have underlying co-morbidity contributing to anemia, it is obvious that in children on peritoneal dialysis normal hematocrit levels should be aimed for (opinion). The work-up of the anemic child is not different from the work-up that is advocated for adult patients by the DOQI guidelines, although the importance of a stool test for occult blood may be less useful in this age group [2, 7] (opinion):
  • Iron deficiency

  • Clinical history

  • Assessment of nutritional status

  • Hemoglobin and hematocrit

  • Red blood cell indices

  • Reticulocyte count

  • Iron parameters

  • Serum iron

Table 1.

Reference ranges of anemia parameters in children [5]: hemoglobin and hematocrit (M male; F female)

Hemoglobin (g/dl)

Hematocrit (%)

1–3 days



2 months



6–12 years



12–18 years, M






Table 2.

Reference ranges of anemia parameters in children [5]: ferritin

Ferritin (ng/ml)



1 month


2–5 months


6 months–15 years


Table 3.

Reference ranges of anemia parameters in children [5]: iron (M male; F female)

Iron (μg/dl)

0–2 months


2–12 months


1–12 years


Thereafter, M




Table 4.

Reference ranges of anemia parameters in children [5]: transferrin

Transferrin (mg/dl)





After this work-up has been completed, iron and/or erythropoietin therapy should be initiated to obtain a target hemoglobin concentration of at least 11 g/dl (hematocrit 33%), although there is a tendency to increase this target [8] (opinion).

A target hemoglobin concentration of at least 11 g/l should be aimed for in children on peritoneal dialysis (opinion).


Most experience has been obtained with subcutaneous administration of recombinant human erythropoietin [9, 10]. Erythropoietin is available as erythropoietin alpha and beta. Erythropoietin alpha and beta differ noticeably in their formulation excipients. No clear prescription schedules for starting erythropoietin are available for children, and schedules provided in the literature vary greatly. It seems reasonable to start with a subcutaneous dosage of 50–100 U/kg body weight 2 or 3 times per week. In some selected patients (particularly if started in the predialysis period) a lower frequency or dosage can be attempted. In studies in adult patients once weekly subcutaneous administration of erythropoietin was effective for the treatment of renal anemia [11, 12, 13]. It is well known that younger children need relatively more erythropoietin than older ones [14] (evidence). Maintenance recommendations vary from 300 U/kg/week for a child with a weight of <20 kg to 120 U/kg/week for a child with a weight of >30 kg [10] (opinion). Each child will need the dosage titrated to achieve the target hemoglobin concentrations. For the titration of erythropoietin the DOQI guidelines can be used [2]. If the increase in hematocrit after initiation of erythropoietin therapy is less than 2% over a 2- to 4-week period, the dose should be increased by 50%. If the absolute rate of increase in hematocrit after initiation of erythropoietin therapy or after a dose increase exceeds 8% per month, the weekly dose of erythropoietin should be decreased by 25%.

Side effects of erythropoietin therapy are rare; increased clotting tendency, hypertension, and seizures are to be considered the consequence of the therapeutic effect rather than an adverse effect of the preparation. Nevertheless, blood pressure should be carefully monitored during therapy.

Recently, attention was drawn to a severe side effect of erythropoietin therapy, pure red blood cell aplasia due to the occurrence of neutralizing antierythropoietin antibodies [15, 16]. Subsequent investigations showed that this was in most cases associated with subcutaneously administered erythropoietin alpha from one brand, although some cases have also been described using the other brand available on the market. The application of erythropoietin beta is associated with a much lower incidence of this severe side effect. In many countries the subcutaneous administration of erythropoietin alpha is discouraged at present. The administration of darbepoetin alpha is not associated with pure red blood cell aplasia, but it should be remembered that experience with this drug is still limited.

Subcutaneous administration of drugs is psychologically distressing, especially for children (opinion). The use of ultrafine needles and special injection pens may help to alleviate the upset. In adult peritoneal dialysis patients a noncompliance with erythropoietin administration was reported in between 35% and 55% of patients [17, 18]. For children no data on erythropoietin are available, but from clinical practice it is known that subcutaneous administration is frightening and a source of conflict between child and caregivers. Limited data are available on the compliance with another drug which has to be administered subcutaneously, recombinant human growth hormone. Noncompliance was reported to be between 50% and 91% [19, 20, 21]. In one study it was reported that noncompliance increased significantly from 41% at 1 year to 91% at 2 years [21]. Intravenous administration is a more expensive alternative, but will rarely be applied in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients [22].

Despite some initial discouraging but still frequently cited reports in the literature, erythropoietin can be administered very well by the intraperitoneal route [23, 24]. If erythropoietin is administered in a small volume of dialysis fluid (50-ml bags are commercially available), bioavailability is similar to that after subcutaneous administration of the same amount of hormone [25] (evidence). Mean dosage needed for maintaining the target hematocrit decreased from 279 to 194 U/kg/week if the drug was administered in a 50-ml dialysis bag during the daytime [26, 27]. In a more recent study in 20 patients on nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis mean dosage was 179 U/kg/week [28]. Dialysis adequacy is a major factor of concern in such a regimen: KT/V urea was ≥2.2 in the group studied. However, in some patients the application of intraperitoneal erythropoietin may be limited by the inability to obtain adequate dialysis (opinion). In patients not achieving adequate dialysis, the daytime period should be used for additional dialysis exchanges. In this category, that period will not be available for intraperitoneal erythropoietin therapy. Peritonitis frequency does not need to increase using intraperitoneal erythropoietin: the two pediatric studies reporting peritonitis rates mention one episode every 14.7 and 11.2 treatment months, respectively [19, 21]. One early study in children was broken off because of a high peritonitis rate [29]; possibly this was due to insufficient training of the caregivers.

Recently, an erythropoietin analogue was developed (darbepoetin alpha or NESP = novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein), which is a hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein with a presumed threefold longer half-life than erythropoietin in man [30, 31, 32, 33, 34] (evidence). In children a two- to fourfold longer half-life was reported [35]. The pharmacokinetics when administered intravenously and subcutaneously appear to be the same in adult and pediatric patients. A randomized comparative study of darbepoetin and erythropoietin in pediatric patients with chronic or end-stage renal disease is just starting. There are no data available with respect to the intraperitoneal administration of darbepoetin.

The development of an orally active agonist of the erythropoietin receptor will be an interesting future feature [36].

Erythropoietin resistance may be due to a number of causes:
  • Infection

  • Hyperparathyroidism

  • Malnutrition

  • Hemolytic disorders

  • Folate or vitamin B12 deficiency

  • Underdialysis

  • Vitamin C deficiency

  • ACE inhibitors

  • Anti-erythropoietin antibodies

Since there is an excellent review of these in the adult guidelines [2, 3, 37], and they are not essentially different in children, they are not discussed in detail here. In children responding poorly to erythropoietin therapy, special emphasis should be put on the possible contribution of inflammation or hyperparathyroidism [38]. The possible occurrence of pure red cell aplasia due to the development of neutralizing antierythropoietin antibodies has been discussed before.

Erythropoietin should be administered by the subcutaneous or intraperitoneal route in children on peritoneal dialysis (evidence). Although there is sufficient evidence to advocate the intraperitoneal administration of erythropoietin, most pediatric nephrologists still apply erythropoietin by the subcutaneous route in their peritoneal dialysis patients.


Iron supplementation is indicated in virtually all pediatric patients with renal anemia who are treated with erythropoietin. According to the DOQI guidelines, transferrin saturation should be maintained above 20% and serum ferritin concentration above 100 ng/ml [2] (evidence). There is no reason to anticipate that these guidelines should be different for children and for adults (opinion). It may be difficult to maintain sufficient iron stores in children on peritoneal dialysis, using oral iron preparations only. Iron supplements should be given to prevent iron deficiency and to maintain adequate iron stores. A dosage of 2–3 mg/kg body weight per day is recommended and administered in two to three divided doses either 1 or 2 h after food.

Iron supplements should not be added to the infant formula or nutrition supplements [39] (evidence). If possible, they should be prescribed with vitamin C to enhance absorption (opinion). However, it is important not to oversupplement with vitamin C for risk of increased oxalate formation. Iron supplements should ideally not be taken with cereals and legumes, tannins (tea, cocoa, chocolate) and dairy products as these interfere with absorption. Micronutrient supplements should also be prescribed following individualized dietary assessment and should account for the potential peritoneal dialysis losses of folic acid and vitamins C and B6. Compliance with oral iron preparations for micronutrient supplements may be difficult and must be reinforced by both medical and dietetic staff [39, 40].

Parenteral iron preparations, commonly used in patients on hemodialysis, are more difficult to apply in children on peritoneal dialysis. After the recent approval of iron gluconate, iron sucrose, and iron saccharate, the application of iron dextran should also be abandoned in the United States [41, 42, 43, 44] (evidence). Recommended dosage is 2 mg iron per kg per week for intravenous iron sucrose treatment [7]. Before starting intravenous therapy the administration of a test dosis is recommended. It is clear, however, that the intravenous administration of iron preparations is cumbersome, and oral administration is preferred [39] (opinion). In rare cases, for example with noncompliance with oral medication, intermittent intravenous administration will be indicated.

Limited but positive experience has been obtained with the intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran, both in rats and men [45, 46, 47]. Reports on the intraperitoneal administration of iron gluconate or iron sucrose are lacking.

Iron should preferably be prescribed as an oral preparation (evidence). In rare cases intermittent intravenous administration will be indicated.


Several studies in adult patients suggest that intravenous supplementation with l-carnitine reduces requirements for erythropoietin by 38–50% [48, 49, 50] (opinion). Published data on the effect of l-carnitine supplementation on the treatment of anemia in children are very scarce. One study showed an increase in the hematocrit by 34% in two children on hemodialysis with l-carnitine supplementation without modification of erythropoietin dosage [51]. Another study in 16 children on dialysis, of whom five were on peritoneal dialysis, showed no beneficial effect of oral supplementation with l-carnitine on erythropoietin requirement [52].

There is no precise place for carnitine supplementation in the treatment of anemia in pediatric peritoneal dialysis patients (opinion).


  1. 1.
    National Kidney Foundation—Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-DOQI) (1997) Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of anemia. Am J Kidney Dis 30 (Suppl 3):192–240Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Kidney Foundation (2001) K/DOQI Clinical practice guidelines for anemia of chronic kidney disease: update 2000. Am J Kidney Dis 37 (Suppl 1):182–238Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    European best practice guidelines for the management of anaemia in patients with chronic renal failure (1999) Nephrol Dial Transplant 14 (Suppl 5):1–50Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watson AR, Gartland C, on behalf of the European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group (2001) Elective chronic peritoneal dialysis in pediatric patients: guidelines by an ad hoc European committee. Perit Dial Int 21:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Behrman RE, Kliegman R, Arvin AM (eds) (1996) Nelson textbook of pediatrics, 15th edn. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    MacDougall IC, Cavill I, Hulme B, Bain B, McGregor E, McCay P, Sanders E, Coles GA, Williams JD (1992) Detection of functional iron deficiency during erythropoietin treatment: a new approach. BMJ 304:471–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaufman JS, Reda DJ, Fye CL, Goldfarb DS, Henderson WG, Kleinman JG, Vaamonde CA (2001) Diagnostic value of iron indices in hemodialysis patients receiving epoetin. Kidney Int 60:300–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stevens L, Stigant C, Levin A (2002) Should hemoglobin be normalized in patients with chronic kidney disease? Semin Dial 15:8–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brandt JR, Avner ED, Hickman RO, Watkins SL (1999) Safety and efficacy of erythropoietin in children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 13:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Damme-Lombaerts R, Herman J (1999) Erythropoietin treatment in children with renal failure. Pediatr Nephrol 13:148–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weiss LG, Clyne N, Divino Fihlho J, Frisenette-Fich C, Kurkus J, Svensson B (2000) The efficacy of once weekly compared with two or three times weekly subcutaneous epoetin β: results from a randomized controlled multicentre trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:2014–2019CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Locatelli F, Baldamus CA, Villa G, Ganea A, Martin de Francisco AL (2002) Once-weekly compared with three-times-weekly subcutaneous epoetin β: results from a randomized, multicenter, therapeutic-equivalence study. Am J Kidney Dis 40:119–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Macdougall IC (2002) Once-weekly erythropoietic therapy: is there a difference between the available preparations? Nephrol Dial Transplant 17:2047–2051CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scigalla P, Bonzel KE, Bulla M, Burghard R, Dippel J, Geisert J, Leumann E, Von Lilien T, Müller-Wiefel DE, Offner GE (1989) Specific problems of renal anemia in childhood. Contrib Nephrol 76:227–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Casadevall N, Nataf J, Viron B, Kolta A, Kiladjian J-J, Martin-Dupont P, Michaud P, Papo T, Ugo V, Teyssandier I, Varet B, Mayeux P (2002) Pure red-cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 346:469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Weber G, Gross J, Kromminga A, Loew H-H, Eckardt K-U (2002) Allergic skin and systemic reactions in a patient with pure red cell aplasia and anti-erythropoietin antibodies challenged with different epoetins. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:2381–2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nicoletta P, Bernardini J, Dacko C, Terry C, Fried L (2000) Compliance with subcutaneous erythropoietin in peritoneal dialysis patients. Adv Perit Dial 16:90–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wazny LD, Stojimirovic BB, Heidenheim P, Blake PG (2002) Factors influencing erythopoietin compliance in peritoneal dialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 40:623–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith SL, Hindmarsh PC, Brook CGD (1993) Compliance with growth hormone treatment—are they getting it? Arch Dis Child 68:91–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rees L (1997) Compliance with growth hormone therapy in chronic renal failure and post transplant. Pediatr Nephrol 11:752–754CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Postlethwaite RJ, Eminson DM, Reynolds JM, Wood AJ, Hollis S (1998) Growth in renal failure: a longitudinal study of emotional and behavioural changes during trials of growth hormone treatment. Arch Dis Child 78:222–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Besarab A, Reyes CM, Hornberger J (2002) Meta-analysis of subcutaneous versus intravenous epoetin in maintenance treatment of anemia in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 40:439–446CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boelaert JR, Schurgers ML, Matthijs EG, Belpaire FM, Daneels RF, De Cre MJ, Bogaert MG (1989) Comparative pharmacokinetics of recombinant erythropoietin administered by the intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Perit Dial Int 9:95–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    MacDougall IC, Roberts DE, Neubert P, Dharmasena AD, Coles GA, Williams JD (1989) Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lancet I:425–427Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reddingius RE, Schröder CH, Koster AM, Monnens LAH (1994) Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human erythropoietin in children treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Pediatr 153:850–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Reddingius RE, Schröder CH, Monnens LAH (1992) Intraperitoneal administration of erythropoietin in children on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Pediatr 151:540–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Reddingius RE, De Boer AW, Schröder CH, Willems JL, Monnens LAH (1997) Increase of the bioavailability of intraperitoneal erythropoietin in children on peritoneal dialysis by administration in small dialysis bags. Perit Dial Int 17:467–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rusthoven E, Van de Kar NCAJ, Monnens LAH, Schröder CH (2001) Long term effectiveness of intraperitoneal erythropoietin in children on NIPD by administration in small bags. Perit Dial Int 21:196–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Offner G, Hoyer PF, Latta K, Winkler L, Brodehl J, Scigalla P (1990) One year's experience with recombinant erythropoietin in children undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 4:498–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    MacDougall IC, Gray SJ, Elston O, Breen C, Jenkins B, Browne J, Egrie J (1999) Pharmacokinetics of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein compared with epoetin alfa in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 10:2392–2395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Egrie JC, Browne JK (2001) Development and characterization of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP). Nephrol Dial Transplant 16 (Suppl 3):3–13Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    MacDougall IC (2001) An overview of the efficacy and safety of novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein (NESP). Nephrol Dial Transplant 16 (Suppl 3):14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nissenson AR (2001) Novel erythropoiesis stimulating protein for managing the anemia of chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 38:1390–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    MacDougall IC (2002) Darbepoetin alfa: a new therapeutic agent for renal anemia. Kidney Int 61 (Suppl 80):55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lerner GR, Kale AS, Warady BA, Jabs K, Bunchman TE, Heatherington A, Olson K, Messer-Mann L, Maroni BJ (2002) Pharmacokinetics of darbepoetin alfa in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 17:933–937CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson DL, Jolliffe LK (2000) Erythropoietin mimetic peptides and the future. Nephrol Dial Transplant 15:1274–1277CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    MacDougall IC (2001) Hyporesponsiveness to anemia therapy—what are we doing wrong? Perit Dial Int 21 (Suppl 3):225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Seeherunvong W, Rubio L, Abitbol CL, Montané B, Strauss J, Diaz R, Zilleruelo G (2001) Identification of poor responders to erythopoietin among children undergoing hemodialysis. J Pediatr 138:710–714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coleman JE, Edefonti A, Watson AR, and the European Paediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group (2001) Guidelines by an ad hoc European committee on the assessment of growth and nutrition status in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 21: online publicationGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Morton AR (2000) How should iron be given to peritoneal dialysis patients? Perit Dial Int 20:598–600PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fishbane S, Wagner J (2001) Sodium ferric gluconate complex in the treatment of iron deficiency for patients on dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 37:879–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tenbrock K, Müller-Berghaus J, Michalk D, Querfeld U (1999) Intravenous iron treatment of renal anemia in children on hemodialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 13:580–582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Michael B, Coyne DW, Fishbane S, Folkert V, Lynn R, Nissenson AR, Agarwal R, Eschbach JW, Fadem SZ, Trout JR, Strobos J, Warnock DG (2002) Sodium ferric gluconate complex in hemodialysis patients: adverse reactions compared to placebo and iron dextran. Kidney Int 61:1830–1839CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yee J, Besarab A (2002) Iron sucrose: the oldest iron therapy becomes new. Am J Kidney Dis 40:1111–1121CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pecoits-Filho RFS, Twardowski ZJ, Kim Y-L, Khanna R, Moore H, Nolph KD (1998) The absence of toxicity in intraperitoneal iron dextran administration: a functional and histological analysis. Perit Dial Int 18:64–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mars RL, Moles K, Pope K, Hargrove P (1999) Use of bolus intraperitoneal iron dextran in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis patients receiving recombinant human erythropoietin. Adv Perit Dial 15:60–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reddy DK, Moore HL, Lee JH, Saran R, Nolph KD, Khanna R, Twardowski ZJ (2001) Chronic peritoneal dialysis in iron-deficient rats with solutions containing iron dextran. Kidney Int 59:764–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kavadias D, Fourtounas C, Tsouchnikas J, Barboutis K (1996)l-carnitine and erythropoietin requirements in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 28:156Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Boran M, Dalva I, Gouenç F, Çetin S (1996) Response to recombinant human erythropoietin (r-Hu EPO) and l-carnitine combination in patients with anemia of end-stage renal disease. Nephron 73:314–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Labonia WD (1995)l-carnitine effects on anemia in hemodialyzed patients treated with erythropoietin. Am J Kidney Dis 26:757–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bérard E, Iordache A (1992) Effect of low doses of l-carnitine on the response to recombinant human erythropoietin in hemodialyzed children: about two cases. Nephron 62:368–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lilien MR, Duran M, Quak JME, Frankhuisen JJ, Schröder CH (2000) Oral l-carnitine does not decrease erythropoietin requirement in pediatric dialysis. Pediatr Nephrol 15:17–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IPNA 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cornelis H. Schröder
    • 1
  • The European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group
  1. 1.Department of Pediatric NephrologyWilhelmina Children's University HospitalAB UtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations