Computational Mechanics

, Volume 57, Issue 3, pp 359–370 | Cite as

Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

  • Jacob Smith
  • Wei Xiong
  • Jian Cao
  • Wing Kam LiuEmail author
Original Paper


Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.


Additive manufacturing Non-equilibrium solution Finite element analysis CALPHAD Alloys 



The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the support for this work provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD) under Grant No. 70NANB13Hl94 and 70NANB14H012. The first author would like to acknowledge the United States Department of Defense for their support through the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) fellowship award. Wei Xiong is grateful to the Thermo-Calc software company for providing the license to the software and databases used in this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacob Smith
    • 1
  • Wei Xiong
    • 2
  • Jian Cao
    • 1
  • Wing Kam Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Material Science and EngineeringNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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