Laparoscopic percutaneous jejunostomy for long term enteral access
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Background: Patients suffering from upper gastrointestinal pathology may require jejunal feeding for adequate nutrition. A laparoscopically guided percutaneous jejunostomy offers a minimally invasive means of obtaining such feeding access.
Methods: Laparoscopic jejunostomy was performed in 32 patients. The most common indications were gastroparesis (n= 16), neurological deficits (n= 7), and proximal obstruction (n= 5). The proximal jejunum was affixed to the abdominal wall using intracorporeal and extracorporeal transabdominal sutures, allowing safe insertion of an 18-Fr Silastic dual-lumen tube.
Results: Laparoscopic jejunostomy was successfully completed for 28 patients; the procedure was converted to an open operation in four cases. Three of these four were among 14 patients undergoing the procedure who had a history of previous abdominal surgery. Major complications were observed in seven patients, including one reoperation and one death from aspiration pneumonia. Tube feeding was accomplished in all patients; progression to full enteral feeding proceeded without interruption in 20 patients.
Conclusion: Laparoscopic jejunostomy can be performed with relative safety. Morbidity, though high, is usually related to preexisting disease. Previous abdominal surgery is not necessarily a contraindication to laparoscopic jejunostomy.
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