Predictive factors of post-laparoscopic inguinal hernia acute and chronic pain: prospective follow-up of 807 patients from a single experienced surgeon
Convalescence after hernia repair is one of the main focuses for hernia surgeons. We analyzed our prospectively collected data to identify possible predictive factors for post-operative acute and chronic pain.
Materials and methods
We prospectively collected the demographic data and peri-operative findings. Post-operative acute pain was evaluated with Visual Analog Pain Scale. The chronic pain (pain persists for > 6 months since operation) was also recorded.
From June 2008 to August 2018, there were 807 patients with 1029 sites of inguinal hernia enrolled in our analysis. Pain before operation was associated with the severity of acute pain on OP (operation) day, POD 1 (post-operative day 1), and POD 7 (post-operative day 7). Younger patients had significantly higher post-operative acute pain on OP day, POD 1, and POD 7. The staple mesh fixation method resulted in a higher pain score at OP day and POD 1. The predictive factors for chronic pain were sex (female), young age (< 65 years), having no past history of hypertension, pain before operation, and mesh material.
A younger age and inguinal pain before operation were the main predictive factors for higher post-operative pain. Younger patients, females, having inguinal pain before surgery, and using heavy weight mesh have a higher risk of chronic pain.
KeywordsPost-operative pain Inguinal hernia Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair
Compliance with ethical standards
Chi-Wen Lo, Yung-Tai Chen, Fu-Shan Jaw, Chih-Chin Yu, and Yao-Chou Tsai have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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