Clinical outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor



Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is one of the major manifestations of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the stomach. Several studies have reported that GIST bleeding is associated with poor prognosis. However, only case reports have reported hemostasis modalities for treating hemorrhagic gastric GIST. To identify clinical outcome of gastric GIST bleeding, we analyzed risk factors and prognosis of hemorrhagic GIST evaluating hemostasis methods.


Total 697 patients histopathologically diagnosed with primary gastric GIST between January 1998 and May 2015 were enrolled to the study, retrospectively.


Of 697 total patients, 46 (6.6%) patients had UGIB. Endoscopic intervention, transarterial embolization, or surgical intervention was performed for initial hemostasis in 15, 2, and 1, respectively. Over a median of 68 months of follow-up, 16 patients in bleeding group and 88 patients in non-bleeding group died; the 5-year survival rate was 79.4% in bleeding group and 91.8% in non-bleeding group (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that significant risk factors for gastric GIST bleeding included the maximal tumor diameter > 5 cm and Ki-67 positivity. Age ≥ 60 [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.124, p = 0.048], necrosis (HR = 5.093, p = 0.027), and bleeding (HR 5.743, p = 0.034) were significant factors for overall survival of gastric GIST patients.


Bleeding risk of gastric GIST was higher when tumor had diameter > 5 cm or Ki-67 positivity. In addition, tumor bleeding, necrosis, and age ≥ 60 years were associated with poor overall survival. Endoscopic intervention can be considered as an effective method for initial hemostasis of hemorrhagic gastric GIST.

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Authors Gyu Young Pih, Sung Jin Jeon, Ji Yong Ahn, Hee Kyong Na, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kee Wook Jung, Do Hoon Kim, Kee Don Choi, Ho June Song, Gin Hyug Lee, Hwoon-Yong Jung, and Seon-Ok Kim have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Correspondence to Ji Yong Ahn.

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Pih, G.Y., Jeon, S.J., Ahn, J.Y. et al. Clinical outcomes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Surg Endosc 34, 696–706 (2020) doi:10.1007/s00464-019-06816-9

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  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
  • Endoscopy
  • Bleeding