Comparison of 3D endoscopy and conventional 2D endoscopy in gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: an ex vivo animal study
Background and objectives
Conventional endoscopy provides two-dimensional (2D) information without depth information. This study compared three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy and 2D endoscopy using an endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training model to evaluate the utility of 3D endoscopy.
Porcine stomach specimens (7 × 7 cm) were prepared from commercially available resected porcine stomachs and a 10-mm hypothetical lesion was marked at the center of each specimen. Specimens were individually placed in an ESD training model, and subjected to either 2D or 3D ESD. En bloc resection rate, perforation rate, incision time, dissection time, and levels of five eyestrain symptoms (fatigue, pain, blurred vision, head-heaviness, and headache; 100-mm visual analog scale) were compared between the 2D and 3D procedures. In a crossover design, 8 endoscopists each performed two 2D and two 3D procedures.
All 32 lesions were resected en block, but perforation occurred in one 2D procedure. Incision time was significantly shorter in 3D ESD than in 2D ESD (102.8 ± 42.1 s vs. 135.8 ± 65.7 s, p < 0.05). Dissection time was also significantly shorter in 3D ESD than in 2D ESD (366.3 ± 187.6 s vs. 517.8 ± 282.3 s, p < 0.05). Differences in levels of all symptoms except blurred vision between before and after ESD were larger in 3D ESD than in 2D ESD.
Incision time and dissection time were significantly shorter in 3D ESD compared with 2D ESD, but eyestrain was increased. Depth information from 3D images appears to facilitate rapid and stable ESD maneuvers.
KeywordsThree-dimensional imaging (3D) 3D endoscope Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) Porcine stomach Eyestrain
Compliance with ethical standards
Kosuke Nomura, Daisuke Kikuchi, Mitsuru Kaise, Toshiro Iizuka, Yorinari Ochiai, Yugo Suzuki, Yumiko Fukuma, Masami Tanaka, Yosuke Okamoto, Satoshi Yamashita1, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, and Shu Hoteya have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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