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Operational effectiveness of three-dimensional flexible endoscopy: an ex vivo study using a new model

  • Kosuke NomuraEmail author
  • Daisuke Kikuchi
  • Mitsuru Kaise
  • Toshiro Iizuka
  • Yorinari Ochiai
  • Yugo Suzuki
  • Yumiko Fukuma
  • Yasutaka Kuribayashi
  • Masami Tanaka
  • Yosuke Okamoto
  • Tsukasa Furuhata
  • Satoshi Yamashita
  • Akira Matsui
  • Toshifumi Mitani
  • Shu Hoteya
Article

Abstract

Background and objectives

Two-dimensional (2D) images lack depth information and thus provide probabilistic recognition that do not completely match the actual three-dimensional (3D) information. Here, we investigated the operability of 3D endoscopes.

Methods

A 3D operation model was developed by passing 20 silk threads through upper and lower plates at 2-mm intervals in front and back rows separated by 1 mm. We evaluated accuracy and time of operating an electrosurgical knife. A successful operation was defined as pulling only a front-row thread; an unsuccessful operation was defined as pulling no thread (miss) or simultaneously pulling front- and back-row threads. Endoscopists (four experts, six trainees) repeated the operation under 2D and 3D conditions until individually accumulating 10 successful attempts under each condition.

Results

Operation accuracy was significantly higher for 3D compared with 2D in all endoscopists (88.5% vs. 61.3%; p < 0.01) and in both experience groups (trainees: 84.5% vs. 61.2%; experts: 95.2% vs. 61.5%; both p < 0.01). Operation time was significantly shorter for 3D compared with 2D in all endoscopists (12.5 ± 4.1 s vs. 14.8 ± 4.7 s; p < 0.01) and in both experience groups (trainees: 12.8 ± 4.2 s vs. 15.2 ± 4.9 s; experts: 12.1 ± 4.0 s vs. 14.3 ± 4.3 s; both p < 0.01).

Discussion

Compared with 2D endoscopy, 3D endoscopy significantly improved operation accuracy and shortened operation time, suggesting that 3D endoscopy enables accurate operation by depth information, aiding spatial recognition.

Keywords

Three-dimensional imaging (3D) 3D endoscope Operation Endoscopic procedure 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosures

Kosuke Nomura, Daisuke Kikuchi, Mitsuru Kaise, Toshiro Iizuka, Yorinari Ochiai, Yugo Suzuki, Yumiko Fukuma, Yasutaka Kuribayashi, Masami Tanaka, Yosuke Okamoto, Tsukasa Furuhata, Satoshi Yamashita, Akira Matsui, Toshifumi Mitani, Shu Hoteya have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kosuke Nomura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Daisuke Kikuchi
    • 1
  • Mitsuru Kaise
    • 2
  • Toshiro Iizuka
    • 1
  • Yorinari Ochiai
    • 1
  • Yugo Suzuki
    • 1
  • Yumiko Fukuma
    • 1
  • Yasutaka Kuribayashi
    • 1
  • Masami Tanaka
    • 1
  • Yosuke Okamoto
    • 1
  • Tsukasa Furuhata
    • 1
  • Satoshi Yamashita
    • 1
  • Akira Matsui
    • 1
  • Toshifumi Mitani
    • 1
  • Shu Hoteya
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyToranomon HospitalTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Gastroenterology DivisionNippon Medical SchoolTokyoJapan

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