Intraoperative ultrasonography of robot-assisted laparoscopic hepatectomy: initial experiences from 110 consecutive cases
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of IOUS in robotic liver surgery and propose a standard protocol of IOUS for safe robot-assisted hepatectomy.
Between February 2015 and December 2016, liver resection was performed in 110 patients with robotic approach in Tongji Hospital. In these patients, IOUS was routinely performed. All data about demographic, surgical procedure, postoperative course were collected prospectively and analyzed.
A four steps IOUS protocol in robotic liver surgery was proposed, including exploration, verification, guidance, and confirmation. A total of 11 additional lesions in 11 patients were detected and 7 patients accepted strategic surgical modification. No patient suffered from any single or multiple organ dysfunctions, and there were no mortalities observed.
IOUS is indispensable to understand lesions and vessels in robotic liver surgery. A four-step standard protocol of IOUS is essential for safe robot-assisted hepatectomy.
KeywordsRobot Ultrasonography Hepatectomy Laparoscopic
We are sincerely grateful to Dr. Satish Nadig (Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, USA) for language assistance and valuable suggestions.
Grants from the Chinese Ministry of Public Health for Key Clinical Projects (No. 2012ZX10002016). Grants from Hubei Province for Key Clinical Projects (No. 2018ACA137).
P.Z. perform the operation, analysis and interpretation of data, draft and revise the article. W.L., Z.-Y.D., B.-H.Z., W.-G.Z. acquisition and analysis of data. H.-C.L.: explanation of ultrasonic data. B.-X.Z., X.-P.C.: conception and design, perform the operation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Peng Zhu, Wei Liao, Ze-yang Ding, Hong-chang Luo, Bin-hao Zhang, Wan-guang Zhang, Wei Zhang, Zhan-guo Zhang, Bi-xiang Zhang, Xiao-ping Chen have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
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