Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 31, Issue 12, pp 5429–5435 | Cite as

Validation of newly developed physical laparoscopy simulator in transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair

  • Yuichi NishiharaEmail author
  • Yoh Isobe
  • Yuko Kitagawa
Dynamic Manuscript



A realistic simulator for transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair would enhance surgeons’ training experience before they enter the operating theater. The purpose of this study was to create a novel physical simulator for TAPP inguinal hernia repair and obtain surgeons’ opinions regarding its efficacy.


Our novel TAPP inguinal hernia repair simulator consists of a physical laparoscopy simulator and a handmade organ replica model. The physical laparoscopy simulator was created by three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, and it represents the trunk of the human body and the bendability of the abdominal wall under pneumoperitoneal pressure. The organ replica model was manually created by assembling materials. The TAPP inguinal hernia repair simulator allows for the performance of all procedures required in TAPP inguinal hernia repair. Fifteen general surgeons performed TAPP inguinal hernia repair using our simulator. Their opinions were scored on a 5-point Likert scale.


All participants strongly agreed that the 3D-printed physical simulator and organ replica model were highly useful for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training (median, 5 points) and TAPP inguinal hernia repair education (median, 5 points). They felt that the simulator would be effective for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training before entering the operating theater. All surgeons considered that this simulator should be introduced in the residency curriculum.


We successfully created a physical simulator for TAPP inguinal hernia repair training using 3D printing technology and a handmade organ replica model created with inexpensive, readily accessible materials. Preoperative TAPP inguinal hernia repair training using this simulator and organ replica model may be of benefit in the training of all surgeons. All general surgeons involved in the present study felt that this simulator and organ replica model should be used in their residency curriculum.


TAPP 3D printing Surgical education Surgical simulation 



We would like to thank all of the participants who voluntarily participated in this study as well as all of the associate developers of the simulator. Funding from the Grant-in-Aid for Epidemiological Research of St. Luke’s International University is gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards


Yuichi Nishihara received funding from the Grant-in-Aid for Epidemiological Research of St. Luke’s International University and Grant-in-Aid of FASOTEC Co., Ltd. Yoh Isobe received funding from Grant-in-Aid of FASOTEC Co., Ltd. Yuko Kitagawa has no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

Supplementary material

Supplementary material 1 (MP4 91,928 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, National Hospital OrganizationTokyo Medical CenterTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryKeio University School of MedicineTokyoJapan

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