Respiratory dynamics and dead space to tidal volume ratio of volume-controlled versus pressure-controlled ventilation during prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgery
Laparoscopic operations have become longer and more complex and applied to a broader patient population in the last decades. Prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgeries require prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position, which can influence respiratory dynamics and other measurements of pulmonary function. We investigated the differences between volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and tried to determine the more efficient ventilation mode during prolonged pneumoperitoneum in gynecological laparoscopy.
Twenty-six patients scheduled for laparoscopic radical hysterectomy combined with or without laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy were randomly allocated to be ventilated by either VCV or PCV. Standard anesthesic management and laparoscopic procedures were performed. Measurements of respiratory and hemodynamic dynamics were obtained after induction of anesthesia, at 10, 30, 60, and 120 min after establishing pneumoperitoneum, and at 10 min after return to supine lithotomy position and removal of carbon dioxide. The logistic regression model was applied to predict the corresponding critical value of duration of pneumoperitoneum when the Ppeak was higher than 40 cmH2O.
Prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position produced significant and clinically relevant changes in dynamic compliance and respiratory mechanics in anesthetized patients under PCV and VCV ventilation. Patients under PCV ventilation had a similar increase of dead space/tidal volume ratio, but had a lower Ppeak increase compared with those under VCV ventilation. The critical value of duration of pneumoperitoneum was predicted to be 355 min under VCV ventilation, corresponding to the risk of Ppeak higher than 40 cmH2O.
Both VCV and PCV can be safely applied to prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgery. However, PCV may become the better choice of ventilation after ruling out of other reasons for Ppeak increasing.
KeywordsVCV PCV Respiratory dynamics VD/VT Prolonged pneumoperitoneum Trendelenburg
This study was supported by the research project of the Key Discipline and Specialty in the Department of Anesthesiology of Shanghai General Hospital (Project Number 040526).
Compliance with ethical standards
Drs. Ming Lian, Xiao Zhao, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, and Shitong Li have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.