Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 30, Issue 12, pp 5232–5238 | Cite as

Pretreatment with endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthesis modulators on gastrointestinal microcirculation during NOTES: an experimental study

  • Pilar Taurà
  • Aitnitze Ibarzabal
  • Marina Vendrell
  • Cedric Adelsdorfer
  • Alberto Delitala
  • Borja de Lacy
  • Ramon Deulofeu
  • Salvadora Delgado
  • Antonio M. Lacy


Background and study aims

On-demand endoscopic insufflation during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) adversely affects microcirculatory blood flow (MBF), even with low mean intra-abdominal pressure, suggesting that shear stress caused by time-varying flow fluctuations has a great impact on microcirculation. As shear stress is inversely related to vascular diameter, nitric oxide (NO) production acts as a brake to vasoconstriction.


To assess whether pretreatment by NO synthesis modulators protects gastrointestinal MBF during transgastric peritoneoscopy.


Fourteen pigs submitted to cholecystectomy by endoscope CO2 insufflation for 60 min were randomized into 2 groups: (1) 150 mg/kg of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, n = 7) and (2) 4 ml/kg of hypertonic saline 7.5 % (HS, n = 7), and compared to a non-treated NOTES group (n = 7). Five animals made up a sham group. Colored microspheres were used to assess changes in MBF.


The average level of intra-abdominal pressure was similar in all groups (9 mmHg). In NOTES group microcirculation decrease compared with baseline was greater in renal cortex, mesocolon, and mesentery (41, 42, 44 %, respectively, p < 0.01) than in renal medulla, colon, and small bowel (29, 32, 34, respectively, p < 0.05). NAC avoided the peritoneoscopy effect on renal medulla and cortex (4 and 14 % decrease, respectively) and reduced the impact on colon and small bowel (20 % decrease). HS eliminated MBF changes in colon and small bowel (14 % decrease) and modulated MBF in renal medulla and cortex (19 % decrease). Neither treatment influenced mesentery MBF decrease.


Both pretreatments can effectively attenuate peritoneoscopy-induced deleterious effects on gastrointestinal MBF.


NOTES surgery Hypertonic saline N-acetyl cysteine 



Special Thanks to Dr. Gonzalez-Abraldes for his technical expertise with the microspheres technique.


This study was supported by a grant of EURO-NOTES 2009.

Compliance with ethical standards


Dr. Antonio M Lacy is a consultant for Covidien and Olympus Medical. Drs. Pilar Taurà, Ainitze Ibarzábal, Marina Vendrell, Cedric Adelsdorfer, Alberto Delitala, Borja de Lacy, Ramon Deulofeu, and Salvadora Delgado have no conflict of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pilar Taurà
    • 1
  • Aitnitze Ibarzabal
    • 2
  • Marina Vendrell
    • 1
  • Cedric Adelsdorfer
    • 2
  • Alberto Delitala
    • 2
  • Borja de Lacy
    • 2
  • Ramon Deulofeu
    • 3
  • Salvadora Delgado
    • 2
  • Antonio M. Lacy
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anaesthesiology, Hospital ClinicUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Institute of Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, Hospital ClinicUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Hospital ClinicUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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