Convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a qualitative systematic review
Duration of convalescence after inguinal hernia repair is of major socio-economic interest and an often reported outcome measure. The primary aim was to perform a critical analysis of duration of convalescence from work and activity and secondary to identify risk factors for unexpected prolonged convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
A qualitative systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane database were searched for trials reporting convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the period from January 1990 to January 2016. Furthermore, snowball search was performed in reference lists of identified articles. Randomized controlled trials and prospective comparative or non-comparative trials of high quality were included. Trials with ≥100 patients, >18 years of age and manuscripts in English were included. Scoring systems were used for assessment of quality.
The literature search identified 1039 papers. Thirty-four trials were included in the final review including 14,273 patients. There was overall a large variation in duration of convalescence. Trials using non-restrictive recommendations of 1–2 days or “as soon as possible to return to all activities” reported overall a shorter duration of convalescence compared with trials not using recommendations for convalescence. Strenuous physical activity at work, strenuous leisure activity and patients with expectations of a prolonged period of convalescence may be risk factors for prolonged convalescence extending more than a few days after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair.
Patients should be recommended a duration of 1–2 days of convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Short and non-restrictive recommendations may reduce duration of convalescence without increasing risk of pain, complications or recurrence rate.
KeywordsConvalescence Risk factor TAPP TEP Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair
Compliance with ethical standards
Dr. Rosenberg reports Grants from Baxter Healthcare, Grants from Johnson & Johnson, Grants and personal fees from Bard, personal fees from Merck, outside the submitted work. Dr. Bisgaard reports Grants from Johnson & Johnson, Covidien, Baxter Healthcare and travel/accommodation expenses for international meetings covered by Baxter Healthcare. Mette A. Tolver has no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose
- 4.McCormack K, Scott NW, Go PM, Ross S, Grant AM (2003) Laparoscopic techniques versus open techniques for inguinal hernia repair. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001785. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001785
- 5.Bittner R, Arregui ME, Bisgaard T, Dudai M, Ferzli GS, Fitzgibbons RJ, Fortelny RH, Klinge U, Kockerling F, Kuhry E, Kukleta J, Lomanto D, Misra MC, Montgomery A, Morales-Conde S, Reinpold W, Rosenberg J, Sauerland S, Schug-Pass C, Singh K, Timoney M, Weyhe D, Chowbey P (2011) Guidelines for laparoscopic (TAPP) and endoscopic (TEP) treatment of inguinal hernia [International Endohernia Society (IEHS)]. Surg Endosc 25:2773–2843CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Berndsen F, Arvidsson D, Enander LK, Leijonmarck CE, Wingren U, Rudberg C, Smedberg S, Wickbom G, Montgomery A (2002) Postoperative convalescence after inguinal hernia surgery: prospective randomized multicenter study of laparoscopic versus Shouldice inguinal hernia repair in 1042 patients. Hernia 6:56–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Johansson B, Hallerback B, Glise H, Anesten B, Smedberg S, Roman J (1999) Laparoscopic mesh versus open preperitoneal mesh versus conventional technique for inguinal hernia repair: a randomized multicenter trial (SCUR Hernia Repair Study). Ann Surg 230:225–231CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.Liem MS, van der Graaf Y, van Steensel CJ, Boelhouwer RU, Clevers GJ, Meijer WS, Stassen LP, Vente JP, Weidema WF, Schrijvers AJ, van Vroonhoven TJ (1997) Comparison of conventional anterior surgery and laparoscopic surgery for inguinal-hernia repair. N Engl J Med 336:1541–1547CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 28.Bansal VK, Misra MC, Babu D, Victor J, Kumar S, Sagar R, Rajeshwari S, Krishna A, Rewari V (2013) A prospective, randomized comparison of long-term outcomes: chronic groin pain and quality of life following totally extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Surg Endosc 27:2373–2382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Gong K, Zhang N, Lu Y, Zhu B, Zhang Z, Du D, Zhao X, Jiang H (2011) Comparison of the open tension-free mesh-plug, transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP), and totally extraperitoneal (TEP) laparoscopic techniques for primary unilateral inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc 25:234–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 47.Lovisetto F, Zonta S, Rota E, Mazzilli M, Bardone M, Bottero L, Faillace G, Longoni M (2007) Use of human fibrin glue (Tissucol) versus staples for mesh fixation in laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty: a prospective, randomized study. Ann Surg 245:222–231CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar