Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 30, Issue 7, pp 2951–2960 | Cite as

A multicenter study of initial experience with single-incision robotic cholecystectomies (SIRC) demonstrating a high success rate in 465 cases

  • Anthony GonzalezEmail author
  • Christian Hernandez Murcia
  • Rey Romero
  • Ernesto Escobar
  • Pedro Garcia
  • Gail Walker
  • Michelle Gallas
  • Eugene Dickens
  • Bruce McIntosh
  • William Norwood
  • Keith Kim
  • Jorge Rabaza
  • Don Parris



Recently, the robotic single-site platform has been used to ameliorate the difficulties seen in single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILC) while preserving the benefits of standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes of a large series of single-incision robotic cholecystectomy (SIRC).


Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent SIRC were retrospectively reviewed. All procedures were performed by six surgeons at five different North American centers involved in the study. All patients included in the study underwent a cholecystectomy attempted through single site at the umbilicus, using the da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc. Sunnyvale, CA).


A total of 465 patients met study criteria. Median age was 48 years (range 18–89); 351 (75.5 %) were female and 304 (66.4 %) were overweight or obese. Except for gender, case characteristics differed significantly by surgeon/site. Previous abdominal surgery was reported for 226 (48.6 %) cases. SIRC was successfully completed in 455 (97.8 %) cases, and there were no conversions to open surgery. Median surgical time was 52 min with a decreasing trend after 55–85 cases. Male gender, obesity and diagnoses other than biliary dyskinesia were independent predictors of longer surgical times. The complication rate was 2.6 %.


Our large, multicenter study demonstrates that robotic single-site cholecystectomy is safe and feasible in a wide range of patients.


Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Single incision Robotic platform 



The authors would like to acknowledge Amy Garner (APRN-ACNP) and Michael McIntosh for data collection.


This investigator initiated study was funded as a Research Grant by Intuitive Surgical. The study was conceptualized, designed and managed by Dr. Anthony Gonzalez as a lead investigator.

Compliance with ethical standards


William Norwood, MD, Christian Hernandez Murcia, MD, Rey Romero, MD, Ernesto Escobar, MD, Pedro Garcia, MD, Gail Walker, Ph.D., Michelle Gallas, Ph.D., and Don Parris, Ph.D. have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose, other than the Grant received from Intuitive Surgical by their respective Institutions for this study. Anthony Gonzalez, MD is a consultant and has received research grants from Intuitive Surgical. He is a consultant with Ethicon. He is on the speaker bureau of Mallinkrodt Pharmaceuticals. He has also received research grants and participated in the scientific advisory board for Minimally Invasive Devices, Inc. Eugene Dickens, MD is a consultant for Intuitive Surgical. Bruce McIntosh, MD is a consultant for Intuitive Surgical and a speaker for Bard. Keith Kim, MD serves as consultant for Intuitive Surgical and Ethicon Endosurgery. Additionally, he has a research Grant with Ethicon Endosurgery. Jorge Rabaza, MD is a proctor for Intuitive Surgical.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Christian Hernandez Murcia
    • 1
  • Rey Romero
    • 1
  • Ernesto Escobar
    • 1
  • Pedro Garcia
    • 1
  • Gail Walker
    • 2
  • Michelle Gallas
    • 2
  • Eugene Dickens
    • 3
  • Bruce McIntosh
    • 4
  • William Norwood
    • 5
  • Keith Kim
    • 6
  • Jorge Rabaza
    • 1
  • Don Parris
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General and Bariatric SurgeryBaptist Health South FloridaMiamiUSA
  2. 2.Population Health and Outcomes Research, Center for Research & GrantsBaptist Health South FloridaMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Utica Park ClinicTulsaUSA
  4. 4.Premier Surgical Specialists and William Beaumont HospitalTroyUSA
  5. 5.Norwood Surgical SpecialistsShreveportUSA
  6. 6.Florida Hospitals, Celebration HealthCelebrationUSA

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