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Laparoscopic splenic hilar lymph node dissection for proximal gastric cancer using integrated three-dimensional anatomic simulation software

Abstract

Background

Laparoscopic lymph node (LN) dissection along the distal splenic artery (Station No. 11d) and around the splenic hilum (Station No. 10) remains challenging even for skilled surgeons. The major reason for the difficulty is the complex, multifarious anatomy of the splenic vessels. The latest integrated three-dimensional (3D) simulations may facilitate this procedure.

Methods

Usefulness of 3D simulation was investigated during 20 laparoscopic total gastrectomies with splenic hilar LN dissection while preserving the spleen and pancreas (LTG + PSP) or with splenectomy (LTG + S). Clinical information acquired by 3D simulation and the consistency of the virtual and real images were evaluated. Furthermore, clinical data of these patients were compared with that of the patients who underwent the same surgery before the introduction of 3D simulation (n = 10), to clarify its efficacy.

Results

The vascular architecture and morphologic characteristics were clearly demonstrated in 3D simulation, with sufficient consistency. The median durations of 14 LTG + PSP and 6 LTG + S operations were 318 and 322 min, respectively. The estimated blood losses were 18 and 38 g, respectively. There were no deaths. One postoperative peritoneal abscess (grade II according to Clavien–Dindo) was recorded. A comparison of clinical parameters between surgeries without or with 3D simulation showed no differences in operation time, blood loss, or complication rate; however, the number of retrieved No. 10 LNs has significantly increased in cases with the use of 3D simulation (p = 0.006).

Conclusions

This kind of surgery is not easy to perform, but the latest 3D computed tomography simulation technology has made it possible to reduce the degree of difficulty and also to enhance the quality of surgery, potentially leading to widespread use of these techniques.

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Author information

Correspondence to Takahiro Kinoshita.

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Disclosures

T. Kinoshita has received honorarium from Ethicon Endosurgery and Olympus Medical Systems. H. Shibasaki, N. Enomoto, Y. Sahara, H. Sunagawa and T. Nishida have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Kinoshita, T., Shibasaki, H., Enomoto, N. et al. Laparoscopic splenic hilar lymph node dissection for proximal gastric cancer using integrated three-dimensional anatomic simulation software. Surg Endosc 30, 2613–2619 (2016) doi:10.1007/s00464-015-4511-4

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Keywords

  • Laparoscopic total gastrectomy
  • Splenic hilar dissection
  • Anatomic simulation