Management of a solitary pulmonary arteriovenous malformation by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and anatomic lingula resection: video and review
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Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between the pulmonary arterial and venous vasculature leading to a right-to-left blood shunt. Based on possible complications, including hypoxemia, hemorrhage, infection and paradoxical embolism, deactivation of the malformation from the circulation is the treatment option of choice, either by interventional embolization or by surgery. Embolization is less invasive and has widely replaced surgery, but bears the risk of revascularization, recanalization and downstream migration of the device with paradoxical embolism.
We report on the case of a 76-year-old male patient suffering from a complex, plexiform pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in the lingula, which was treated by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and anatomic lingula resection. Patient’s medical history, clinical examination and imaging studies did not reveal any evidence of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
Left-sided anterior three-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) approach was used. Instead of only wedge resecting the very peripherally located pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, the lingular vessels were controlled centrally and an anatomic lingula resection was performed in order to prevent a more central re-malformation. To prevent rupture of the aneurysm sac through pressure overload, the feeding arteries were controlled before the draining vein. Duration of the total procedure was 151 min, the single chest tube was removed on the postoperative day 3, and the patient was discharged on the postoperative day 6.
Although interventional embolism of the feeding artery of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation is the current therapeutic gold standard, minimally invasive anatomic lung resection by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery can be considered, especially for the treatment of solitary large arteriovenous malformations. By anatomic lung resection, the risk of recanalization, collateralization and peri-interventional paradoxical embolism may be reduced.
KeywordsVideo-assisted thoracoscopic surgery VATS Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation PAVM Pulmonary segment resection Anatomic lung resection
We thank Christoph Winter and colleagues from the “Diagnostikzentrum Radiologie + Neurologie,” Paul Zipp Street 171-173, 35398 Giessen, Germany, for the permission to demonstrate chest computed tomography images of the PAVM.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Martin Reichert, Stefanie Kerber, Ibrahim Alkoudmani and Johannes Bodner have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.
Informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of the clinical course and operation video.
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